An excellent way for the more advanced learner to increase his or her English proficiency is to read an English-language newspaper on a regular basis. Most people who read a newspaper do so selectively and skim through the pages looking for the most interesting-looking articles to read first. They usually make their choice on the basis of the headlines of the articles. And this is where the difficulty for the non-native speaker of English arises, since newspaper headlines are often extremely difficult to understand. There are two main reasons for this. The first reason is that newspaper headlines have to be brief and consequently use short words that are rarely used in everyday speech or indeed in the rest of the article itself. These short words have been called thinnernyms, and include probe for investigation, blast for explosion, and axe for abolish, etc.
And the second reason why newspaper headlines are difficult to understand is that headline writers, at least in British newspapers, look for every opportunity to include a pun in their headlines. It is this second aspect of newspaper headlines that I want to concentrate on in this article.
Popular British tabloids such as the Sun or the Mirror are notorious for the use of puns in their headlines, but even serious papers such as the Guardian cannot resist the temptation. What makes many of the headline puns even more difficult than the simple wordplay of puns used in jokes is that headline puns very often contain cultural references. Unless you are familiar with popular British TV programmes or advertising, the headline will be impossible to understand. All the examples which follow were taken from the Guardian over two weeks at the end of November last year. See if you can identify the pun or make any sense of the meaning of the headline.
Puns are plays on words, and they form the basis of most jokes. They can use a word that has two meanings as in the following When is an ambulance not an ambulance? - When it turns into a hospital! Here turns into can mean changes into or turns a corner into. Or they can play on two different words with the same sound, as in Whats black and white and red (read) all over? - A newspaper. (Obviously this second kind of pun doesnt work when written down.)
What wobbles when it flies? - A jelicopter! (i.e. jelly wobbles and a helicopter flies)
Why couldnt the viper viper face? - Because the adder adder handkerchief.
(Why couldn't the viper wipe her face? - Because the adder had her handkerchief. Both viper and adder are synonyms for the only poisonous snake found in England.)
Why are there no aspirin tablets in the jungle? - Because paracetamol! (i.e. because parrots eat them all; paracetamol is the brand name for a popular aspirin tablet in England.)
The pun in this case is in the words burning questions. The questions are about fires, hence burning questions, but burning question is another way of saying an important or urgent question.
Friction is a word used to describe tension or disagreement between people, in this case between scientists and the British government. The obvious reference here is to science fiction; stories that take place in the future or another part of the universe.
The nickname of the South African team is the Springboks (or Boks). The pun here is on the expression Between a rock and a hard place, which means in a difficult situation, in a dilemma.
This is a simple pun on the words Waugh/war, which are pronounced identically.
The term gender has to do with male and female; and the newspaper article in question deals with the return of tension in the working relationships of men and women in London post offices. The headline is a pun on the instruction Return to sender, which is stamped on letters that cannot be delivered and must be sent back to the people who wrote them.)
The Russian politician was killed by a gunman in a dark stairway; hence the headline. But a shot in the dark also means a gamble or a guess.
Dutch courage is the expression given to bravery that is attained by drinking lots of alcohol.
A blight is an affliction or illness; in this case the sore throats of teachers, which cause them to be silent. The reference is to the Christmas carol called Silent Night.
The flies of the headline refer to the name of the play under review The Lord of the Flies. The pun is in the reference to the expression Theres no flies on her, (or anyone other person), which means you cannot trick her; she is not easily fooled. The headline is presumably intended to mean: This show is very good.
The pun here is in the combination of Clyde and bonny. This refers to a popular gangster film of about twenty years ago called Bonnie and Clyde. Bonny is a word used mostly in Scotland to mean attractive, so the literal meaning of the headline is that the take-over offer of the Clyde company is not attractive to shareholders of the other company.
Once more the pun is in the combination of two words, dragon and puff, and refers to a popular childrens song called Puff, the Magic Dragon. The dragon is the symbol for the Welsh rugby team, and to lose ones puff means to get out of breath. The pun is extended by the use of the term fired up: dragons breathe out fire, and fired up means highly motivated. As to the literal meaning of the headline, I have to confess that I dont know. It doesnt make any sense to me!
The word atoll means coral island and is being punned here with the phrase "that will do" thus producing the sentence: Officials say that will do nicely. The statement That will do nicely is taken from a British TV advertisement some years ago where a customer asks if he can pay by a certain credit card and the shop assistant replies. Yes, that will do nicely. (i.e. you are most welcome to pay with this credit card.) The corrupt officials of the headline were telling prospective island buyers that their money was most welcome.
The pun is in the combination of whinge and prayer. This refers to the title of an American World War 11 song called Coming in on a wing and a prayer, about a pilot trying to try land a damaged plane. Wing has been changed here to whinge, which means to moan or complain. The term "without a prayer" means "without hope".
The literal meaning of the headline is that the minister was complaining (about his treatment at the hands of the press) but had no hope of retaining his position as leader of the Welsh assembly.