Assume, as an example, that students are given a transcript of the Martin Luther King "I have a dream" speech and their homework assignment is to paraphrase part of it. Here are some classroom strategies that could be used to embed (scaffold) the task:
- activate prior knowledge (ask questions to find out what students already know)
- give background information (fill in the gaps in their essential knowledge; encourage student questions)
- articulate task purpose (set the reasons for assigning the task in its syllabus context)
- use visual aids (e.g. show a video of parts of the speech)
- practise the skill of paraphrasing - or show a model answer (so students can concentrate on the content of the speech)
- pre-teach essential vocabulary (to reduce student dependence on the dictionary and increase their chances of comprehension)
- give the students the address of a website where they can hear/view the speech again at home (so that its prosodic elements aid comprehension) .