I've decided to abandon the idea of starting writing a book. I just don't have the time.
Many people have to abandon their houses when war breaks out in their country.
The settlers decided to abandon the settlement and sail back to Cuba.
Lispeth took to Christianity readily, and did not abandon it when she reached womanhood.
Associated: abandonment (noun) 9,00
ability[noun] ableness to do something; a skill for doing something well
She has a lot of ability in tennis; in fact she's the best player in her grade!
I'm sorry but the school has no ability to educate children with severe learning problems.
This finding may explain why increasing numbers of people in the United States lack the natural ability to regulate food intake and body weight.
Strong families possess the ability to manage both daily stressors and difficult life crises creatively and effectively.
Associated: to be able to (verb); able (adjective) Antonym: inability Note: A disability is (permanent) physical inability. People who cannot see have a disability. A near synonym of ability is capability . 126,20
abnormal[adjective] not normal, unusual
Is there anything wrong with him? His behaviour has been very abnormal recently.
We got some very abnormal results in our science experiment. I think the thermometer was not working correctly.
Abnormal results do not diagnose birth defects, they just suggest that follow-up tests are necessary for further clarification.
Drug abusers also show prefrontal cortex abnormalities; it is possible that abnormal behaviour may be linked to drug use.
Associated: abnormality (noun) Antonym: normal 7,90
absent[adjective] being not there; missing
If you are absent much more often, you are in danger of failing the class.
What is absent in your essay is any reference to the source of your ideas
Groups should advise the instructor if a member is unexpectedly absent and try to save materials for that person.
Curiously absent from the report is any mention of the type of action that the State would have taken against the diverse sources of TCE.
Associated: absence (noun) Antonym: present 16,40
absolutely[adverb] completely; 100%
Are you absolutely sure that you gave me your homework?
The employees are absolutely opposed to the management's plans to increase working hours.
Imagine being surrounded by hundreds of people who are absolutely convinced you can do anything.
How did you decide that some items were absolutely necessary?
Associated: absolute (adjective) 15,40
absorb[verb] to take in; to take up
The teacher spoke so fast that it was difficult to absorb all the information he was giving.
The high price of oil will absorb much of the company's profits this year.
The World Bank said China has the capacity to absorb the impact of the recent international financial market fluctuations.
He claimed that Arab countries could not absorb Palestinians.
Associated: absorption (noun) Note: Note how the b of the verb changes to a p in the noun. 10,20
abstract[adjective] not specific or concrete
Infinity is an abstract idea that many students find difficult to understand.
I find your arguments too abstract. Can you give me some specific examples of what you mean?
Audio software can help students to record their spoken words describing an abstract concept or how to perform a computation.
The book is at its best when it delves energetically into some particular event, and draws out its abstract meaning with reference to the grand themes.
Associated: abstraction (noun) Note: An abstract painting is one without an obvious subject. Another common meaning of abstract (noun) is a short summary of a written article (usually an academic article). 84,20
abundant[adjective] existing in large quantities
You have had abundant chances to improve your behaviour. Now it's too late.
Some scientists believe that there is an abundant supply of oil waiting to be discovered at the bottom of deep oceans.
Given the abundance of oxygen and silicon in the crust, it should not be surprising that the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust are the silicates.
A student seeking a career in this field of study will have abundant opportunities to develop personal and professional skills.
Associated: abundance (noun) Antonym: scarce 8,20
abuse[verb] to treat someone or something badly
If you abuse your calculator like that, you'll break it.
Parents who abuse by their children have often been abused by their own parents.
TSU Employees who abuse University network and computing resources may be subject to disciplinary action.
Government troops continued to abuse human rights. Clashes between security and rebel forces caused civilian deaths.
Associated: abuse (noun) Note: Abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs is called substance abuse 57,90
accelerate[verb] to get or make faster
If you push down on the right pedal in your car, you will accelerate.
The rise in the price of oil is set to accelerate in future years due to increased demand in countries such as China and India.
The xenon atoms need to accelerate to a speed of 30 km/s.
This program will accelerate entry to the field and to advanced study of nutrition.
accompany[verb] to go with someone or something; to exist together
Mike is feeling very unwell. Can you please accompany him to the nurse?
Problems in school often accompany problems at home.
If submitted in other languages, an English version must accompany the submission.
All the forms below can be electronically filled and submitted with the exception of Form B, which must accompany personal copies of material.
Associated: accompaniment (noun) 19,30
accomplish[verb] to do or achieve
It is surprising what you can accomplish if you make an effort.
The government failed to accomplish its goal of reducing unemployment among young people.
The union was not able to accomplish all of its goals in this budget session.
What did Louis XIV hope to accomplish in his domestic and foreign policies?
Associated: accomplishment (noun) 37,80
accordingly[adverb] appropriate to; in compliance with
Those are the rules of the school and I expect you to behave accordingly.
If you change your address or place of study, please amend your log-in details accordingly.
This page has moved. Please update your bookmark accordingly!
The procession enters the arena promptly at 9:30 a.m., so plan your time accordingly.
account[noun] a written or spoken report of a happening
Can you please give me an account of what happened while I was out of the classroom?
Different newspapers will often have a different account of the same event - especially newspapers from different parts of the world.
Chapter 6 gives a sketchy and rather incomplete account of molecular genetics.
This book provides the definitive account of the origins of coffee drinking.
Note: Another common meaning of account is in connection with money and business , as in I have an account with the Deutsche Bank. The preposition on account of means because of , as in She was late tto school on account of the heavy traffic. 157,00
accumulate[verb] to grow; to gather together
If you learn a few new words every day, your vocabulary will soon accumulate.
The only goal of some people is to accumulate as much money as possible.
Under the new programme, employees will continue to accumulate the same amount of paid time off as they did in the old programme.
Because of their mobile lifestyle, they did not accumulate many objects.
Associated: accumulation (noun) 11,20
accurate[adjective] exact, containing no mistakes
Your writing is very accurate; in fact, it contains no mistakes at all.
If you want to make an accurate measurement of the weight of very small objects, you will need a special electronic balance.
The evidence is overwhelming that prediction markets provide a more accurate prediction than polls.
Some tests may be very accurate but too costly to run, while others are less costly but not as precise.
If you accuse a student of plagiarism, you must have strong evidence.
Some people accuse the USA of starting the war in Iraq in order to gain control of its oilfields.
Students should not accuse others of cheating unless there is clear evidence.
From then on, the government tried to accuse the communists of being enemies of the fatherland.
Associated: accusation (noun) 2,30
achieve[verb] to gain or get something (often academic success)
If you worked hard you would achieve a better grade.
It is difficult to achieve success in school if you are absent so often.
Girls and boys achieve at similar levels in mathematics through school and at the undergraduate level.
To achieve this goal, planning must apply the best available scientific information and analysis.
Associated: achievement (noun) 105,00
acknowledge[verb] to agree with; admit to; give credit to
He had to acknowledge the fact that teaching was not the right job for him.
The government had to acknowledge that it had not succeeded in its plans to reduce child poverty.
I would set my classes up for failure if I did not acknowledge this very clear, but often overlooked, fact.
She claimed, furthermore, that the item did not acknowledge the positive developments in the industry since the turn of the century.
Associated: acknowledgement (noun) 28,80
acquire[verb] to get or obtain
Where did you acquire your knowledge of ocean ecology?.
I tried to acquire the information on the internet, but could find nothing useful.
We designed an experiment to acquire blood from embryonic rats.
The course aims at helping students acquire a working familiarity with the Federal Rules of Evidence.
Associated: acquisition (noun) 38,10
The new teacher looks quite young but his actual age is 55.
There are a few meetings next week but the actual conference doesn't start until on Monday 23.
In the event of an actual disaster a new virtual bulletin board will help the campus take roll.
Class data will be collected to compare perceived overweight and attempt at dieting with actual weight risk classification.
Associated: actually (adverb) 59,70
adapt[verb] to change (often in response to a changed situation)
Some students find it difficult to adapt to a new school in a new country.
It is possible to adapt cars so that they can be driven by people who have lost an arm or a leg.
If you choose to do nothing to adapt to the changing conditions, you will probably make yourself miserable.
The monks found it difficult to adapt to changes in society and in the economy, and they also found it difficult to adapt to challenges presented by the new learning made available through translations of ancient Greek texts by way of Arabic.
Associated: adaptation (noun) 25,20
add[verb] to include; to give or say extra
Your report is good, but you need to add a paragraph on the causes of the accident.
Please add Einstein to your list of famous scientists.
This means that you will be able to add money from your bank account to your StanfordCardPlan using this new online service.
This form is to be used by students who seek to add or drop a course during the first two weeks of the trimester.
If you do not adhere to the rules of the school, you will be asked to leave.
Because of the increase in the price of oil the company was unable to adhere to its plans to employ new workers.
Media center users must adhere to the same standards of behavior expected of other library visitors.
He did not adhere to one set of religious beliefs and pioneered a new artistic style known today as symbolism.
Associated: adherence (noun) 16,00
adjacent[adjective] next to
The computer lab is adjacent to the library.
You will find reference books on this shelf and the adjacent ones.
Bradley Hall provides backyard access to the lakeshore path, and tennis courts are adjacent to the building for your recreational enjoyment.
To accurately determine mass balance, stakes were placed in the adjacent clean ice areas of the glacier.
Note: In sentences 2 and 4 below adjacent is being used as an adjective; in sentences 1 and 3 it is used as a preposition and must be followed by the word to. 17,80
adjust[verb] to change (often in order to make something work properly)
If the picture on your TV is not very clear, you need to adjust the controls.
It took the Brazilian football player a little while to adjust to the speed and hardness of the English football league.
Photoshop provides you with techniques used to adjust the quality of graphics and photographs.
Most older cultures seem to accept volcanoes as a natural part of life and adjust their habits accordingly.
Associated: adjustment (noun) 33,90
administration[noun] the people responsible for running an organization such as the government or a school
The administration is planning to extend the school day until 4pm.
Not all the decisions of the administration have been welcomed by the workers.
Such web content does not necessarily reflect the opinions of the University administration.
The Bush administration has failed to address the matter urgently, spending only 1.3 billion per year.
Associated: administer (verb); administrator (noun) 228,00
admit[verb] to allow to enter
After much debate the school has decided to admit students with physical disabilities.
The government does not plan to admit any more immigrants unless they can prove that their life is in danger in their own country.
Each graduate receives three tickets that will admit guests into the auditorium.
In fact, most nations do not admit immigrants for permanent settlement.
Associated: admittance (noun); admission (noun) Note: Another common meaning of admit is to accept guilt or responsibility , as in She admitted plagiarzing her report. 24,10
adopt[verb] to take in; to start
The school decided to adopt the plan after a meeting with the parents.
We need to adopt a new strategy. This one isn't working.
It is never too late to adopt healthy habits! American Institute for Cancer Research.
Banks that adopt the Equator Principles apply them globally to project financing in all industry sectors including mining, oil and gas, and forestry.
Associated: adoption (noun) Note: Another common use of adopt is in connection with a baby or child, as in They cannot have children of their own so they have decided to adopt a Romanian orphan. 33,90
advance[verb] to go or move forward; to get better
The German army planned to advance as far as Moscow, but were then stopped by the severe Russian winter.
You will advance more rapidly if you make more effort.
Here you can recommend areas for investment of resources to advance the University in its health sciences, education, research, service and outreach missions.
The goals are to answer some of the most urgent questions to advance significantly our scientific knowledge about Mars.
Associated: advance (noun); advanced (adjective) Antonym: retreat Note: A common use of advance is in the expression in advance which means ahead of time. For example: I booked my plan ticket well in advance. 113,70
The most important advantage of living near the school is that I can go home for lunch every day.
If you want to be successful in business, it is certainly an advantage to be able to speak more than one language.
Humor can be advantage in politics.
Previous experience in such areas, especially microscopy, would be an advantage but is not essential.
advise[verb] to say what someone should do; to give advice
I advise you to prepare more carefully for tests.
The government can advise people to save money for old age, but it cannot force them to do it.
Tilghman has appointed a group of faculty members to advise her on how the University can best respond to the challenges and opportunities in the international arena.
What would you advise the patient so that the injury not recur?
Associated: advice (noun); adviser (noun) Note: Adviser can also be spelled advisor 24,40
advocate[verb] to speak or write on behalf of someone or something
Part of the job of an ESL teacher in an international school is to advocate the need to make work comprehensible to non-native speakers.
Some people advocate government elections every four years instead of every five as at present.
We do not advocate a unilateral ban on cosmetic testing on animals, nor do we reject the use of animals in biomedical research.
People with mental disabilities are so marginalized that even human rights activists have failed to advocate for them.
Associated: advocacy (noun); advocate (noun) Note: A lawyer who defends someone in court is sometimes called an advocate (= barrister in British courts). 28,20
affair[noun] an event or series of events
Several students are suspected of sending offensive emails to teachers. The school is investigating the affair.
World leaders met in Bali to discuss global warming. Many people say that the whole affair was a waste of time and money.
The writer Emile Zola exposed the affair to the general public in the literary newspaper L'Aurore (The Dawn) in a famous open letter to the President.
Its president tried to play down the affair, saying that what is going on is probably illegal, but that an international agreement was allowing the practice.
Note: Another meaning of affair is sexual relationship with someone who is not your spouse, as in He's having an affair with his secretary. 6,70
affect[verb] to have an influence on
If you fail the last test, this will seriously affect your overall grade for the year.
Even very low temperatures do not affect the strength of this material.
Because of the interactive nature of the classroom, absences will significantly affect your performance in the course.
Color did not affect the perceived sweetness of the drink and did not affect the drink's ability to quench thirst.
Associated: effect (noun) 113,70
afford[verb] to be able to pay for something
My family can't afford a new house. They're so expensive in Germany.
Due to the recent increase in student numbers, the school can now afford to build a new science laboratory.
The monthly mortgage payment is just one of the costs to consider when deciding if you can afford a home.
What we are really discussing is whether the industrialized countries can afford the pensions promised by their respective governments.
Note: Afford can have a more general meaning , as in There is only one month until the exam. You cannot afford to take it easy. 27,50
against[preposition] opposed to; not for or in favour
The head teacher is thinking of introducing a school uniform. Most students are against the idea.
Although nuclear power does not pollute the air, many people are against it because they fear an accident or terrorist attack on a nuclear power station.
I think this the first time that the administration has done something almost totally against student interest.
The majority of American voters have turned against the war in Iraq but not against the American troops and not against patriotism.
Associated: Antonym: for, in favour of 74,20
agent[noun] a person who is paid to do a job for someone
Most people employ an agent when they want to buy or sell a house.
Most famous footballers and film stars need an agent to take care of their contracts.
The United Mine Workers was the recognized bargaining agent for the coal miners in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.
FLO plays the key role as an agent for ethically sensitive consumers.
Associated: agency (noun) 42,60
aid[noun] help (often financial help)
The government decided to increase its aid to the countries of eastern Africa.
You should contact the office to see if you can get aid.
Financial aid is the term we use to describe a variety of funds available to help students and their families finance the cost of a Berry College education.
Evidently both species can discriminate depth by differential motion alone, with no aid from texture density and probably little help from other cues.
Associated: aid (verb) 196,60
aim[noun] goal or intention
The main aim of teaching should be to teach the students how to teach themselves.
The company's aim in the second half of the year is to increase its export business.
Our aim was to determine whether the association between HPV infection and cervical cancer is consistent worldwide.
This political biography has fully succeeded in its aim of restoring Shevardnadze's place in history.
Associated: aim (verb) Note: Another common meaning of aim is to point a gun etc. at a target , as in Wilhem Tell aimed at the apple of his son's head. 31,40
albeit[conjuntion] although, but
She works well, albeit very slowly.
The government has had some success in reducing unemployment, albeit not as much as it had promised.
He was a visual thinker and an artist, albeit a rather unsuccessful one.
Many of the research questions involved are similar to more mainstream systems research, albeit larger in scale.
align[verb] to bring into line with; to make similar
Frankfurt International School needs to align its curriculum with that of German state schools.
The European Union attempts to align commercial and financial practices in its member countries.
If UVA is to increase level of satisfaction among junior faculty, it must make an effort to align its policies and practices more closely with the needs and expectations of the faculty.
He was unable to align the methods and texts advocated by these educators with the powerful ideas of the critical pedagogues shaping his opinions.
Associated: alignment (noun) 14,60
allege[verb] to claim or state
The teachers allege that the school administration is secretly planning to increase working hours.
Some people allege that the reasons for invading Iraq were to gain control of its oil.
Specifically, you allege that you were not provided with academic adjustments and auxiliary aids, and were not provided access to other services and programs at the College.
Unilateralism may not be destroying American foreign policy as some allege. But it does have its price.
Associated: allegation (noun) 1,90
allocate[verb] to give to (to promise to give)
The school plans to allocate 10,000 to buy new computers next year for the science lab.
It is difficult for the government to allocate money fairly to all the organizations that need financial help.
The website shows how schools allocate and use their resources.
The points that you allocate should be proportional to the individual's contribution to your team for the quarter to date.
Associated: allocation (noun) 12,20
alter[verb] to change
The government decided to alter its economic policy after three years of very slow growth.
In the next 50 years the world's weather could alter significantly if the polar ice continues to melt.
These budgets must be very carefully designed as it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to alter the amount of the award once it has been granted.
The significant differences between the traditional and non-traditional student has prompted the question whether institutions need to alter their teaching methods to fit the needs of the non-traditional student.
Associated: alteration (noun) 32,70
alternative[noun] other possibility
Sorry, you have no alternative. You must do the work and you must do it by Friday.
For the last 30 years scientists have been searching for a good alternative to gasoline (petrol) as a fuel to run cars.
If breastfeeding is not possible, commercial infant milk formulas are a good alternative.
This section is not an alternative to reading course materials or attending lectures, but rather an opportunity explore topics in greater detail.
Associated: alternative (adjective); alternatively (adverb) 97,00
ambiguous[adjective] not clear; open to more than one interpretation
The sentence "I saw a man with a telescope" is ambiguous. Was the telescope used to see the man or was the man carrying a telescope?
The minister gave an ambiguous answer when asked if the government intended to raise taxes.
This also helps you determine which variables it is essential to control to avoid an ambiguous answer.
The data is ambiguous as some analysts measure this figure according to different moments of the year, geographic regions and other variables.
The government will today publish its annual report on crime statistics.
The Tour de France is an annual bike race that is watched by millions of people on the roads and on TV.
At our 10th annual symposium in late 2005, we posed this set of questions about Space Exploration: Who, What, When, Where, Why?
Typically held the 3rd week of February, this is an annual event that helps College of Fine Arts students explore careers, develop strategies to pursue career and artistic goals successfully.
Associated: annually (adverb) 138,20
anomaly[noun] an unexpected happening or piece of data
Women often earn less money that men doing the same job. This anomaly must be stopped.
The business manager could not explain the anomaly in the company's finances, and was asked to resign.
Mathews touches on an anomaly that has puzzled students of American regional religious history.
Worse yet, 1992 was no anomaly but the culmination of bad trends, most of them directly related to the company's lack of focus.
Associated: anomalous (adjective) 4,10
anonymous[adjective] having no name or known author
The school received an anonymous email with complaints against one of the teachers.
In all democratic countries voting in government elections is anonymous.
Many of the faculty and students we talked with wanted to remain anonymous and asked that they not be listed by name in our report.
On December 4, 1955, the anonymous decision was made to boycott the bus system until they were treated with courtesy and black drivers could be hired.
Associated: anonymity (noun) 15,60
anticipate[verb] to expect
The government does not anticipate an improvement in unemployment figures until the beginning of the new year.
The number of refugees rose faster than anyone could anticipate.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System ran into serious financial problems because Congress did not anticipate the cost of inflation.
Because multicultural audiences will likely become more and more common, you will need to anticipate cultural differences when you analyze your audience.
Associated: anticipation (noun) 20,00
apart[adjective] not together, separate
People who love each other do not like to be apart.
The house was built so carelessly that it began to fall apart after only a couple of years.
It was in 1827, near the beginning of his time apart from the Allan family, that Poe witnessed his first collection of poetry.
The United States is a nation pulling apart to a degree unknown in the last 25 years.
Associated: Antonym: together Note: Another common meaning of apart is in the expression apart from meaning except for, as in Everyone was there apart from me! 22,20
apparatus[noun] equipment; things you need to do a job
At the end of the lesson please put the apparatus back in the storeroom.
In Iraq the whole apparatus of government was destroyed and had to be rebuilt.
He both provided a message service and the apparatus needed to send and receive wireless messages.
In the 20th century, if you wanted to kill lots of people, you needed a government apparatus to do it.
apparent[adjective] clear; obvious
It is apparent that you made no effort to learn the words for the test.
The soldier shot the dog for no apparent reason.
The need for regulation is quite evident today but was not apparent before the early years of the 20th century.
Kaiya reminds him that they have never been apart before, and it is apparent that Willow is experiencing feelings of guilt.
Note: Apparently means it seems, it appears; it is said, as in Apparently she has left her husband. 23,20
appeal[verb] to complain against an official judgment; to make a strong request
The parents decided to appeal against the school's expulsion their son.
Radio and TV stations often appeal for money from their audience in order to help people suffering from disasters.
Students are strongly recommended to seek assistance from the Student Rights Officer at their campus should they decide to appeal against exclusion.
It has no alternative but to appeal to more sources and additional help from all those who are keen to support Palestinian education.
Associated: appeal (noun) Note: If something appeals to you you like it or like the idea of it. Example: Lying for hours in the sun does not really appeal to me. 44,40
appear[verb] to come, be seen
The President will appear on TV this evening to talk about the riots in the capital city.
Venus will next appear in the night sky in August 2007.
Study suggests macroscopic bilaterian animals did not appear until 555 million years ago.
A new class of antibiotic drugs is not expected to appear in the immediate future.
Associated: appearance (noun) Antonym: disappear, vanish Note: Another common meaning of appear is to seem, as in It appears that he has been lying. or It doesn't appear that he's coming. (Someone's appearance is the way they look.) 148,50
append[verb] to add to the end (of a piece of writing)
You must append a bibliography to all reports that are based on information found in books or on the internet.
The chairman forgot to append a list of election regulations as promised.
You must append copies of the primary literature that you are citing to your paper, and you should highlight the pertinent sections.
However, because The Dream intends to interest both lay and professional readers, it is unfortunate that she failed to append a glossary of significant terms.
Associated: appendix (noun) 5,20
apply[verb] to be relevant (to)
The advice does not apply to adults, only to children.
The new rules will apply to anyone who has come to Germany in the last 10 years.
The decision does not usually apply to aliens who are under mandatory detention.
They argued that the law did not apply to Cheney's task force, since all of its members were government officials, not outsiders.
Associated: application (noun) Note: Another common meaning of apply is to make a formal request for something ( especially jobs or college admission ), as in I have applied to study physics at Harvard. 354,00
appoint[verb] to give a job to someone
Due to a rapid increase in the number of students the school needs to appoint 4 new teachers.
If you appoint someone who is not qualified for the job, you cannot be surprised if they have problems.
Dr. Potts announced that he planned to appoint a broadly based committee of representatives to study the Indian issue.
Sunnis believe that the Prophet Mohammed did not appoint a successor and therefore gave permission to Muslims to elect or choose their own leader after his death.
Associated: appointment (noun) Antonym: dismiss Note: Another common meaning of appointment is an arranged time to see someone, as in I have an appointment to see the doctor at 9:30. 10,80
appreciate[verb] to understand (the value of someone or something)
I appreciate the reasons for your failure to hand in the work on time. Nevertheless, our policy requires me to give you a zero.
Some parents do not appreciate how difficult it is to provide an education that will meet the needs of all students.
Students will learn to appreciate what epidemiologists mean when they say that an exposure and an outcome are associated.
She was raised by a family that did not appreciate the significance of racial differences and the importance of developing a positive racial identity.
attack[noun] to criticize; to attempt to harm or damage
The administration's proposal to extend the school day came under attack from the teachers.
The government must be prepared for an attack from people who oppose its decision.
It's a serious attack on any community's authority to develop and implement housing policies without consultation.
We had to make sure that our customers in China knew that what we were doing was not an attack on Chinese industry, but a dispute over a legitimate issue.
Associated: attack (verb) Antonym: defence 33,00
attain[verb] to get, achieve
If you work harder, you will attain a better grade next term.
To attain the highest positions in American politics it is necessary to come from a rich family.
What skills did you attain in the process of completing your course?
Unfortunately, some states will not be able to attain the new ozone standard, partly because of pollution not originating in their state.
Associated: attainment (noun) 16,70
attempt[verb] to try
If you don't make the basketball team this year, you should attempt it again next year when you are in grade 8.
The President accepts full responsibility for the decision to attempt the rescue.
Despite the fact that this was a simple questionnaire, the researchers did not even attempt to translate it for use with less educated deaf people.
The student was hardly active with the experiment and did not attempt to contribute.
Associated: attempt (noun) 93,00
attend[verb] to go to, to be present at
Did you attend the meeting after school yesterday?
The government's plan is for at least 50% of school leavers to attend a university or college.
If you are unable to attend a class for any reason, and would prefer to work directly from the student guide, please contact the Training Coordinator.
As a general rule, all persons wishing to attend the conference must register and pay for participation.
Associated: attendance (noun) 135,60
A common teacher request to students who are not listening in class is: Pay attention.
Once the conference is over the government will turn its attention to the problems of urban crime.
If there is a group that we have paid no attention to, it's old women, says Hawkes.
After the attacks of September 11, 2001, Pat Cornell turned her attention to detecting and preventing terrorism.
Associated: attend (verb) 103,20
attitude[noun] what someone thinks about something (and how their behaviour is influenced by their thinking)
The government has changed its attitude to nuclear power now that the cost of oil has been so high for the past few years.
What is your attitude to paying higher taxes in order that more schools and hospitals can be built?
A negative attitude toward yourself as a writer can make you anxious and lead you to "block."
This is the wrong attitude to have when considering the true dangers the culture of alcohol presents to the campus.
attract[verb] to be interesting; to cause to like
His new book is sure to attract a lot of attention.
Many stores have special offers to attract new customers.
There are many attempts to attract more women and minorities to the field, but people's perceptions must be altered before changes can happen.
The paper was unable to attract sufficient support and ceased publication after a few months.
Associated: attraction (noun) Antonym: repel Note: Attract is what two magnets do when the negative pole of one approaches the positive pole of the other. 27,70
attribute[noun] characteristic; property
The main attribute of a good teacher is knowledge of his or her subject.
Honesty is not an attribute that most people associate with occupations such as politician or used-car salesman.
While mastery of both written and spoken English is considered to be an essential attribute, students with documented hearing, speech and other disabilities will be reasonably accommodated in accordance with law.
Ambition was not an attribute of the female characters in his earlier films.
Note: As a noun attribute is stressed on the first syllable. The word also exists as a verb (stressed on the second syllable) and means to say who or what you think is the cause of something, as in I attribute his poor behaviour to current problems at home. 15,60
authentic[adjective] real, genuine; not made-up or artificial
Many language teachers believe that their learners should use only authentic materials, not ones especially made for ESL students.
These documents have an official stamp, but I'm not convinced they are authentic.
This past summer, after a vacation to Japan, I realized that what I had been eating in America was not authentic Japanese food.
In order to make student learning relevant to real life experiences, learning environments must be authentic.
Parents have authority over their children until the children leave home.
The government has no authority to tell people how to live.
The owner of the organization has the authority to make decisions.
The Department Coordinator, elected by peers, has the same one vote as the others and has no authority over her peers.
Associated: authorize (verb) Note: The expression the authorities is used to refer to people in power such as the police, the government, etc.. Example: It's time the the authorities did something about drinking on the streets. 54,20
automatic[adjective] happening by itself; happening naturally or usually
Many shops these days have automatic doors. They open as soon as you approach.
If you are caught drinking and driving, this results in an automatic driving ban of at least 3 months.
In this article I will discuss the possible use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) for training students to improve their accents in a foreign language.
At no point in our deliberations are numbers employed in a way that would trigger an automatic decision to offer or deny admission.
Associated: automatically (adverb) 23,80
available[adjective] can be had (bought or obtained)
Microsoft's new operating system will not be available until the beginning of September.
Digital television is not yet available in many parts of the country.
The practice test materials will become available just prior to the class.
Certain items are not available at this time since the originals have been put into storage for the duration of the construction.
The average student at our school spends about 90 minutes doing homework every evening.
The average German family has 1.8 children.
Each section of the book, is represented by a family, which was chosen as an average family representing that country.
What's the average time needed to finish a course?
Associated: average (noun) 90,90
Most teachers are averse to students wearing hats or chewing gum in the classroom.
Doctors these days are not averse to advising patients about poor lifestyle choices such as smoking or lack of exercise.
While I am not in favor of teaching creationism in public schools, I am also not averse to having it presented and examined.
The bulk of the urban districts, particularly in the Northern states, were totally averse to this development.
Associated: aversion (noun) Note: Do not confuse averse with adverse (noun: adversity) which means negative. Example; The high cost of oil is sure to have an adverse effect on profits. 1,20
avoid[verb] to not do something or go somewhere
I avoid the cafeteria at lunchtime. It's too crowded and noisy.
The government should avoid making promises that it cannot keep.
To prevent this from happening, it is very helpful for patients to avoid talking unless absolutely necessary for three days following surgery.
Those who will be attending the event should try to make it to the Speedway early to avoid the rush hour traffic.
Associated: avoidance (noun) 108,60
I am aware of her problems at home, but this doesn't mean that she can be rude and disruptive in school.
The workers were not aware of the management's plans to relocate the factory.
A high percentage of students are not aware of tutoring services offered by the College of Engineering.
While you may not admit to political pressure, you must be aware of its almost constant presence; and you must recognize it and be prepared to deal with it.
Associated: awareness (noun) 42,30
background[noun] family experiences; circumstances
With her background it is not surprising that she has had problems in her new school.
You need to know a little more about the background before you criticize the government's decision.
Furthermore, as an educational institution, the College cannot ignore the background and perspectives of its students and must attempt to promote teaching practices and a campus atmosphere that benefits and ensures the success of all of its learners.
These questions are meant to help you research the background information you will need to evaluate some of the water quality issues in NYC
Associated: journey (noun) Note: Another common meaning of background is associated with what you can see behind or at the back of something. Example: It is not easy to read webpages with green writing on a purple background. 111,60
You must try to achieve a balance between work and play. At the moment it's too much play!
Good teaching is a balance of fairness, firmness and friendliness.
Below are some suggestions for achieving a balance between your work and personal life.
The idea that there is balance in nature is part of most world views.
Associated: balance (verb) Antonym: imbalance Note: A balance is an object used for weighing things, as in We used the balance to determine the weight of the rock. 59,60
ban[verb] to prohibit or forbid
My parents have decided to ban me from eating in my room.
The government is considering whether to ban smoking in all public places.
Certain questions must be answered before it becomes politically feasible, or even necessary, to ban cellular phones.
Schwarzenegger said he wanted to ban junk food from school vending machines.
Associated: ban (noun) Antonym: permit 13,60
barely[adverb] not very much; hardly
It's no surprise that she is so quiet in class. She can barely speak a word of English.
The government has made barely any progress towards reducing environmental pollution.
The B grade had come to signify work that was barely acceptable.
San Francisco's justice reform program is barely alive, says a UC Berkeley report.
base[verb] to use as a way of doing or deciding something
School need to base their curricula on the needs of the students who attend them.
The government should not base its tax policies on what newspaper editors tell it to do.
You are being quizzed on how well you understand the information in your required readings, so base your answers on what is written in the Hunt textbook.
We did not base our selections on an author's nationality, religion, politics, or field of study; nor on an author's race or gender.
Associated: basis (noun) Note: A common meaning of base (used as a noun) is the foot or bottom of something, as in We had our picture taken at the base of the pyramid. 141,00
basic[adjective] first or easy
You have not yet mastered basic grammar. You still make mistakes like "he go" or she don't".
The basic problem is that we don't have enough money.
The most basic technique to develop is observational drawing skills.
The basic issue is, and always has been, one of parenting.
battle[noun] fight, part of a war
I'm in a battle with John's parents. They want me to give him more homework, but I know he won't do it.
The government will never win the battle against drug-taking.
They are currently involved in a battle against Occidental Petroleum to save their land and their way of life.
A battle to save life has recently been waged at the Kwangtze Hospital in Shanghai. This battle is not yet over, but it has already caused a great sensation.
Associated: battle (verb) 25,80
behalf[noun] as a representative of; for the benefit of
Mrs Cho spoke on behalf of the Korean Parents Group and thanked the school for buying Korean books for the library.
The lawyer was acting on behalf of the two children who had lost their parents in a car accident.
Some information is collected on our behalf by outside agencies in order to provide services to our visitors.
Erving Goffman pointed out that when one person speaks on behalf of another, the former steals the latter's conversational role.
Note: Behalf must be preceded by the word on, as in on her behalf or on behalf of the teachers 28,20
behave[verb] to act or do things in a certain way
Standing on the table is certainly no way to behave in the cafeteria!
One of the most important jobs of a parent is to teach the child how to behave in different situations.
What might cause my computer to behave oddly and even insult me, and how can I fix it?
His research helped establish that identical DNA sequences may behave differently depending on context and condition.
Associated: behaviour (noun) 16,60
belief[noun] what you think; what you believe in
It is my belief that he copied large parts of your writing from the internet.
Many people who are old and sick are comforted by their belief in God.
They have developed a strong belief in themselves which provides them with the energy, the drive, and the tools they need to face challenges.
The result of such abuse was increased poverty in Russia and lost belief in the fairness of governmental institutions.
Associated: believe (verb) 28,00
belong[verb] to be part of something or owned by someone
Almost all of the world's countries belong to the United Nations organization.
The sports hall is on the school grounds but it doesn't belong to the school.
This we know: the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth.
He may belong to any political party he pleases, or he may belong to none.
Associated: belonging (noun) 27,20
Archaeologists found some Roman coins beneath the town wall.
There is land beneath the ice in Antarctica, but water beneath it at the North Pole.
Spending months at a time in orbit, the scientists will be able to observe changes on the earth beneath them from day to day.
The men searched the entire camp, digging beneath the snow and even into the earth, but no paper was found, no diaries and no documents.
Associated: Antonym: above 6,20
With her good grades she is now getting the benefit of all her hard work.
I know the disadvantages of living far from the city and my work, but there is an important benefit: fresh air!
Customers found no benefit in comparison -shopping, since price uniformity was nearly absolute.
Janice Walker wanted to examine further ways to continue this great benefit to the company's staff as well as the company's productivity.
Associated: benefit (verb) 84,00
besides[preposition] in addition to; as well as
I was surprised that besides me there were only about three or four people in favour of the proposal.
And besides failing to reduce unemployment, the government has also increased the tax on food.
These two-word verbs present one other problem, besides not appearing as separate entries in the dictionary.
What do western Louisville and the Appalachian region have in common besides being two of the poorest areas in Kentucky?
Note: Do not confuse this word with beside which means next to , as in I live beside the school. 12,00
beyond[preposition] further than: past
She always goes beyond what is expected of her. No wonder she gets such good grades.
The school is constructing a new science block beyond the sports field.
Many new astronomy learners, students and adults alike, are unfamiliar with the universe beyond the solar system.
Art is every artist's attempt to communicate in a way beyond words what they feel, see, and think about life.
Note: Sometimes beyond functions as an adverb, as in The spaceship went as far as Mars and beyond. 58,50
bias[noun] favouring one more than another, prejudice
Her family were persecuted by the Nazis, so it's no surprise that she shows bias against the Germans.
He has a strong bias against religion since suffering badly as a child in a strictly religious school.
APA offers specific recommendations for eliminating bias in language concerning race, disability, and sexuality.
Recent research shows bias against African American mothers of any class who don't work.
Associated: bias (verb); biased(adjective) 22,60
blame[verb] to accuse
I blame my teacher for not preparing us properly for the test.
It's too easy to blame all of the country's problems on the government.
The media and the public should not blame the music industry for the jobs that parents are not fulfilling.
I blame the linguists, for not insisting that anyone who claims to be an educated person needs elementary competence in describing and analyzing the sound, form and meaning of human language.
Associated: blame (noun) 14,30
block[verb] to not allow; to stop or prevent
After listening to the students' assurance, the principal decided not to block their plan for a sleepover in the school gym.
The government has decided to block financial aid to the African country until the civil war is over.
The king could delay implementing a new law, but could not block it entirely.
The filter must block out all but about one part in a million of the light that hits it, and must do so all across the spectrum.
Associated: block (noun) Note: Another common meaning of block as a noun is a large piece or collection of , as in a block of wood or .. a block of houses 81,60
The government took the bold decision to decrease tax.
It was bold of him to criticize the boss in front of all the workers.
It was a bold move, but frankly we didn't have a choice.
A group of artists who were working and teaching in the Boston area had a bold idea: to create a new kind of school for professional education in the visual arts.
Associated: boldly (adverb); boldness (noun) Antonym: cautious Note: When you make typed writing bold you make it darker. 12,50
bond[noun] link; tie
There is usually a close bond between students of the same nationality at an international school.
The bond between mother and child is said to be the strongest of any personal relationships.
Most simply, the strength of a bond is measured by determining how much energy is required to break the bond.
Its plot centers on how the bond between two female "mates" is almost broken because both love the same man.
Associated: bond (verb) 25,60
boundary[noun] limit, extent
The boundary to the school grounds is the stream. You must not cross it.
Children who have no boundary to their behaviour are often unhappy.
The boundary between the United States and Mexico represents one of the greatest divisions of wealth on Earth.
We are often right on the boundary of warm and cold or moist and dry air masses. So we get some very difficult weather conditions to try to forecast.
Please write a brief summary of the causes of the first world war. Write no more than 300 words.
Give me a brief explanation of how the accident happened.
These notes are intended as a brief introduction to some of the main ideas and methods of calculus.
Since most employers spend less than a minute scanning a resume, it is necessary to be brief and to highlight all that is important.
If your disruptive behaviour does not cease, you are in danger of being expelled.
The fighting is expected to cease when the United Nations sends in its observers.
All campus party noise must cease by 12:00 Midnight.
In proof of this, we may note that slavery did not cease immediately on the reception of Christianity.
Associated: cessation (noun) Note: A ceasefire is an agreement to stop fighting 10,40
You are certain to fail unless you put in more effort.
The professor was not certain that the work contained the student's own ideas.
Be certain to answer the question in its entirety. Be certain to explain how and why you came to a particular conclusion.
Since the U.S. flu vaccine supply was cut in half early this month, shots are scarce, lines long and some people are certain to miss out.
Associated: certainty (noun); certainly (adverb) Antonym: uncertain Note: Another very common use of certain can be seen in the following examples, where it has the broad meaning of some. Examples: There are certain problems with your writing. Certain people are unhappy with the plans. 95,60
challenge[noun] difficult situation; problem
The school faces a real challenge in educating students from poor backgrounds.
The greatest challenge that we face is to reduce global warming.
The University of California library system faces a challenge in relation to the costs of online journal subscriptions.
Delivery of safe and timely care is a huge challenge given the complexities of modern medicine.
Some new students to the school find it unusual that teachers expect them to collaborate with other students to complete homework assignments.
European countries have decided to collaborate in an effect to reduce illegal immigration.
We need to put our minds together and decide if we need to collaborate among our institutions to provide a new service.
The two departments have failed to collaborate and coordinate their efforts in implementing the laws and regulations on the use of wetland areas.
Associated: collaboration (noun) 22,30
collapse[verb] to fall down completely and heavily; to fail
Many buildings collapse during earthquakes and kill the people inside.
The computer system did not collapse, even though more than a million people tried to access the website at the same time.
The debate over whether North Korea will collapse and whether the United States should promote its collapse has paralyzed American policymaking.
The regime, which is bound to collapse under the deadweight of its own internal contradictions, is going to collapse on our heads.
Associated: collapse (noun) 21,40
combine[verb] to put or go together
When two atoms of hydrogen combine with one of oxygen, then the result is H2O, water.
If you can combine your intelligence with hard work, you have a good chance of success.
Click here to review the rules of comma usage when you combine two independent clauses.
The UCLA Philharmonia, however, is bridging the gap between North and South campuses with two concerts that combine symphony with science and history.
Associated: combination (noun) 42,60
He will never be a good teacher. He has no command of the class.
The UN soldiers lost command of the village when it was invaded by terrorist fighters.
Even the older generation does have some command of the Indonesian language.
In his view, the Empire was less a place where England exerted control than where it lost command of its own identity.
Associated: command (verb) Note: Another common meaning of command is order, as in She gave the command to advance on the enemy. 38,80
commence[verb] to start
The meeting will commence at 8.30.
The company's problems did not commence until the price of oil increased.
Their acquaintance, therefore, it may be presumed, did not commence till towards the end of this year 1754.
The journey to peace and prosperity in the region can only commence when the civic authority is brought back in.
Associated: commencement (noun) 5,70
comment[noun] a short written or spoken statement or opinion
The principal made no comment on the reasons for asking the student to leave the school.
The government minister expressed regret at her thoughtless comment about 'lazy incompetent teachers'.
She listened attentively, but made no comment.
That's probably the most fatuous comment I've read on this website.
Associated: comment (verb) 96,60
commercial[adjective] to do with business
The commercial area of Frankfurt is to the south east of the city center.
Some people say that there were commercial reasons for the invasion of Iraq.
Many of these strategies have already been adopted by the commercial airlines, which operate in an intensely competitive environment.
But when planned and deliberate policy forces the price of oil down without good commercial reasons, then that means another war against Iraq.
Associated: commerce (noun) Note: Another common meaning of commercial is television advertisement, as in I saw a funny commercial on TV last night. 56,60
commit[verb] to do (often an offense)
Do not commit the serious error of believing you can pass the course without doing the coursework.
The pressure of examinations leads some young people to commit suicide.
The most significant risk factor in predicting whether a person will commit a violent crime in the future is whether the person has previous offenses.
When all the edits are done, click the button to commit the changes to the database.
Note: Another common meaning of commit is to make a commitment to, as in Mary was not ready to marry and commit herself to John for the rest of her life. 25,70
committee[noun] a group of people meeting to discuss an issue
The school established a committee to discuss the introduction of a bilingual programme.
The government set up a committee to investigate the reasons for the riots.
He reported that the presidential search committee has been formed and thanked some groups for forwarding diverse nominees.
The current timing left the committee with only one working week to review the applications.
commodity[noun] a product; something you can buy
Respect is not a commodity. You have to earn it; you cannot buy it.
Most economists believe that oil is the most important commodity in today's world.
Water is a useful and necessary thing, but it is not a commodity until someone builds a fence around the water source.
Vegetable crops are the most important commodity group for small farms in southern states and their importance is expected to increase.
When parents decide to send their children to a fee -paying school, education becomes a commodity.
common[adjective] often seen or happening
Volkswagen is a very common car in Germany.
Graffiti is common on the buildings in big German cities.
In fact, most of the errors discussed on this site are common in the writing of privileged middle-class Americans.
Plants that possess certain traits or characteristics not common to the entire species are referred to as biotypes.
Associated: commonly (adverb); commonality (adverb) Antonym: uncommon Note: Another meaning of common is shared, as in We soon found that we have common interests. or We soon found that we have a lot in common. 131,60
communicate[verb] to convey information
In an international school it is important to communicate to the parents in their own languages.
The government is having difficulty trying to communicate the reasons for its change of policy.
This illustrated publication introduces the different ways deaf people can communicate, including gestures and facial expressions, speechreading, etc.
Even though the right hemisphere could not communicate to observers what stimuli it had been presented with, it did show some verbal comprehension.
Associated: communication (noun) 60,30
community[noun] a group of people
Frankfurt International School has invited the local community to its Open Day.
The internet has made it possible for a community of people with similar interests to get together online, even if they don't live close to each other.
Unidata is a diverse community of education and research institutions vested in the common goal of sharing data, tools to access the data, and software to use and visualize the data.
The situation is such that not only is the Muslim community conflicted with the outside pressures to conform, but it is conflicted within itself.
Associated: communal (adjective) 424,00
comparison[noun] a statement of how two things are similar or different
In this report you must write a comparison of FIS and your previous school.
If I make a comparison of England and Germany, I have to say I prefer Germany. The weather is better and the people are more friendly.
There have been several reviews done regarding the comparison of online course delivery tools that are on the market today.
What is the comparison between continental and oceanic volcanic eruptions?
Associated: compare (verb) 69,20
compatible[adjective] able to work with someone or something else
The school made a mistake when buying new computers. They are not compatible with the printers we have.
If you have an aquarium you must be careful to ensure that you stock it with fish that are compatible.
Factory farming is just not compatible with animal welfare.
In order to match you up with the most compatible roommate we can, please fill out the Housing Intake Questionaire.
I will conclude my presentation with an example of sea pollution.
Since you have not attended class for the last seven weeks, I conclude that you are not interested in graduating.
Since the discovery of cave paintings, we can conclude what animals looked like thousands of years ago.
Although two weeks are dedicated to its development at the end of the semester you should not conclude that this is enough time for the entire project.
Associated: conclusion (noun) 39,90
condemn[verb] to express strong disapproval
European governments strongly condemn the kidnapping of a German aid worker in Afghanistan.
I condemn the way that animals are used in medical experiments.
Plagiarism is easy to condemn but often hard to define. This is partly because the legal rules differ sharply from the ethical ones.
The Bible laid down some rules for the humane treatment of slaves but did not condemn the practice.
Associated: condemnation (noun) 3,30
Look at the condition of your homework planner! You will have to buy a new one.
The company was in a very strong condition after winning a million dollar contract to build its machines.
The libraries are in a poor condition and are in urgent need of restocking with new books and journals in both Arabic and English.
Applying the engineering feedback concept, we can search and reach the optimum condition with a very small number of tests.
Note: Another important use of the word condition is to express what must happen before something else can be done. Examples: I'll lend you my iPod on condition that you return it tomorrow. - or - A condition of releasing you from prison is that you must report to the police once a week. 69,80
conduct[verb] to do or perform; to behave
That is no way to conduct yourself in the library.
Researchers at the university plan to conduct a survey into what makes people over-drink.
The United Nations Commission of Human Rights did not conduct an investigation.
This document explains why it is important to conduct a community assessment during a sustainability project.
Associated: conduct (noun) Note: The noun conduct is most often used as a synonym for behaviour . [As a noun conduct is stressed on the first syllable, as a verb it is stressed on the second.] 116,40
confident[adjective] sure that something will happen
I am confident that you will do well in the examinations.
The company directors are confident that business will improve in the new year.
We are not confident that those who do less well on high-stakes tests in fact do worse in school or on the job.
Dr. Pruitt said that he was very confident that all aspects of the law, as well as any other concerns, would be closely looked at prior to any deal being made.
Associated: confidence (noun); confidently (adverb) Note: Self-confidence is feeling good about yourself. 10,20
confine[verb] to limit
Please confine your answer to a maximum of 100 words.
Many parents confine their children to the bedroom when they behave badly.
One factor was political: because we had decided to confine the project at first to the six northernmost counties in our region
But he did not confine himself to theoretical matters alone. He now drew attention to the lack of American minority students on campus.
confirm[verb] to agree that something is correct
Can you please confirm that you will be at the school next year?
The government official wrote to confirm that the new law applied only to people born after the year 1990.
Lebanese security officials said the soldiers' tank drove over a mine, but Israel said it could not confirm that.
We wanted to confirm that the resonators worked, and our major theoretical assumptions were correct.
Associated: confirmation (noun) 33,00
conflict[noun] problem, struggle or battle
She was in conflict with her parents at home and this was having a negative effect on her schoolwork.
The most serious kind of conflict is war. Many people die when countries have problems that cannot be solved in peaceful ways.
We are in the middle of the most serious conflict with the governments of these peoples and nations.
The conflict ended with a rebellion against the East India Company in 1857, and the firm eventually was nationalized.
cycle[noun] a complete series of events or processes
The water cycle is one of the natural processes that are familiar to most students.
The government is finding it difficult to break the cycle of poverty and poor school performance.
The comprehensive and multidisciplinary International Lincoln Center for American Studies offers a year-round cycle of events to students and the community.
Users are guided through a complete cycle of statistical computing: preparing data, performing analysis, viewing output.
Associated: cyclical (adjective) Note: To recycle something is to use it again, as in In Germany most household products such as bottles or yoghurt pots can be recycled. 49,20
damage[verb] to spoil or break
If you damage a computer, you will not be allowed to use the lab.
It is feared that disagreement about what to do in Iraq will damage the relationship between the USA and the UK.
The radioactivity in the drugs works to destroy the tumor but usually does not damage healthy organs.
Not any of these persons shall perform or permit any practice that may damage the reputation of the university.
Associated: damage (noun) 59,40
The students made a deal that they would speak to each other only in English.
The government has done a deal with the nurses union in order to avoid strikes in hospitals.
China won't take strong action against Iran's nuclear program because China just made a deal to buy lots of Iranian oil.
The Hershey Corporation, however, already had a deal to provide chocolate for the troops.
Associated: deal (verb) Note: The phrasal verb to deal with means to address an issue or difficulty, as in I've never had this problem before. I don't know how to deal with it. 76,00
debate[noun] formal discussion
The students took part in a debate to decide whether Germany should continue to use nuclear power to generate electricity.
There is a lively debate in the country at the moment on whether cannabis should be made legal or not.
One of the earliest uses of coffee was actually as a medicine, although there was also a debate as to whether it was helpful or harmful.
For the second meeting of the Forum, we have arranged a debate between two legal professionals who must struggle with the death penalty regularly.
Associated: debate (verb) 40,00
debt[noun] something owed to another person (often money)
Thank you for helping me. I shall forever be in your debt.
The company was heavily in debt after investing a lot of money in new machinery.
A student who is in debt to the University at the end of any academic term shall not be permitted to register in the University again
We southerners, and especially we white southerners, owe a huge debt to valiant civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King.
Note: The b in debt is silent. The word is pronounced det. 12,60
decade[noun] a period of ten years
It can take as much as a decade or more of hard study in a foreign language to become as fluent as a native speaker of that language.
The last decade of the twentieth century started in 1990 and ended on 31 December 1999.
The most powerful typhoon in over a decade should break south of Shanghai early on Wednesday.
The industry will move to a 42-volt electrical system within this decade.
decision[noun] intention to do something, choice
The school has made the difficult decision to ban the wearing of religious symbols in the classroom.
Because of massive protest, the government had to go back on its decision to put up the tax on petrol.
This illustrates the variety of rational choices that a criminal would make in the decision to commit a crime.
The recent switch from Webmail to the express mail interface was a poor decision.
Associated: decide (verb) 114,20
declare[verb] to state
All students must declare at the beginning of the school year that they understand and will follow the plagiarism policy.
In tomorrow's TV broadcast the government will declare its intention to reduce taxes during its time in office.
A student should declare a Literature minor by the first semester of his or her junior year.
Under these treaties, US warships did not have to declare the nature of the weapons they carried.
Associated: declaration (noun) 8,70
decline[verb] to go down or get worse
The number of students at the school with learning difficulties has begun to decline in the last few years.
Smoking will probably decline in popularity in most western countries now that smoking bans are in force.
Production of oil and gas will decline unless new reserves of oil and gas are discovered and developed.
Strauss said his health started to decline and he was placed on the transplant recipient waiting list.
Associated: decline (noun) Note: Another meaning of decline is to refuse or reject , as in She declined the invitation to make a presentation to the whole faculty. 39,00
decrease[verb] to get smaller, to go down
His grades have started to decrease since he has missed so much school.
The population of a country will decrease if more people die than are born.
Since the early 1990s, the number of smokers has continued to decrease but at the more gradual rate of 5.2% annually.
Employees' levels of intrinsic motivation will decrease if they feel they are being controlled by their employers through extrinsic rewards.
Associated: decrease (noun) Antonym: increase Note: In the noun decrease the first syllable is stressed. In the verb decrease the second syllable is stressed. 55,50
dedicate[verb] to devote (time and attention)
You need to dedicate a little more time to your studies and a little less time to your sports.
The government should dedicate all its energy to reducing unemployment.
We dedicate all our efforts and resources to the education and preparation of all students.
Once Grace Albee arrived in New York City in 1933, she was able to dedicate herself to full-time printmaking and her art began to command serious national attention.
Associated: dedication (noun) 5,00
deduce[verb] to come to a conclusion about someone or something
You should be able to deduce the answer if you think carefully enough.
The detective was able to deduce from the size of the footprints that the thief was probably a woman or child.
The pictures presented aspects of the objects they could not deduce from the equations alone.
Using computer modeling, he was able to deduce the relationship between the strength of a stellar wind and the age of a star.
Associated: deduction (noun) 4,40
deed[noun] an action
Helping the new student on her first day at the school was a good deed.
It was not a deed of which he was particularly proud.
This is the single most important deed a district judge can perform in the administration of his duties.
It was not a deed that anybody in the world would consider wise.
defeat[noun] a loss (often in a battle or sports event)
There is no shame in defeat if you have tried your best.
The government blamed its defeat in the elections on failure to communicate its policies clearly enough.
The Soviet workers have suffered a terrible defeat of a world-historical significance.
Rubin did not suffer defeat but learned to use anger and pride to fight for what was right.
Associated: defeat (verb) Antonym: victory 9,80
defect[noun] problem; mistake
She has a defect in one eye that makes it difficult for her to read from the board.
A major defect in the proposal is that there is not sufficient money to finance it.
This is not a defect in the notion of economic development as much as it is a problem with the fiscal structure of Alaska.
Hacking's book suffers from a serious defect, namely he does not understand the nature of hypnosis.
Associated: defective (adjective) 6,80
defend[verb] to give reasons for
The headmaster was unable to defend his proposal to lengthen the school day.
It is difficult to defend the government's decision to invade Iraq.
The student must defend the thesis before a committee of three or more faculty members.
Aschoff's trip failed because he was unable to defend his concept against the competitive approach favored by German and Russian scientists.
Associated: defence (noun) Antonym: attack Note: Defence is spelled defense in American English (and stressed on the first syllable). 21,30
deficient[adjective] poor, lacking in quantity or quality
This work is deficient. I don't think you spent very much time on it.
The city's public transportation system is becoming more and more deficient.
The department may admit students of superior promise but deficient preparation, provided that such students correct their deficiencies.
Oddly, however, the book is almost completely deficient in fictional representations of invalids.
Associated: deficiency (noun) 3,90
define[verb] to state what something is or means
ESL teachers often ask their students to define words in class.
Many arguments would not develop if people would define the words they use.
I'm not sure how to define any of these abstract terms, and yet I recognize some of the components of forgiveness.
If you try to define something that is beyond the comprehension of your paper or your own experience, the task will become overwhelming.
Associated: definition (noun) 79,50
definitely[adverb] certainly; without doubt
I'm sorry, but I will definitely not be able to come to the meeting next week.
You are definitely going to fail the course unless you start working harder.
A student enrolled in these types of courses really didn't get to know the instructor well and definitely did not feel any sense of community.
Attendance will not constitute a specific percentage of your final grade, but if you miss more than two classes you will definitely fail this course.
Associated: definite (adjective) 13,30
degenerate[verb] to get worse
Her work has continued to degenerate since the divorce of her parents.
Muscles degenerate unless they are exercised; just like the brain!
The value of books would certainly degenerate if they could simply be produced and reproduced in cyberspace at an extremely minimal cost.
The political system must not be allowed to degenerate into unlimited majority rule, which could result in the erosion of individual liberty.
Associated: degeneration (noun) 4,70
To a certain degree I think you are right, but not 100%.
To what degree do you believe that the government has made the right decision?
Most of Africa suffers to some degree from similar issues: weak institutions, stagnant economies, ethnic conflict, etc.
The hypothesis put forward in this paper depends in no degree upon the completeness of our knowledge of the former condition of the organic world.
Note: Another common meaning of degree is an educational award, as in I am studying for a degree in linguistics. 250,00
You must turn in the assignment by next Friday. There can be no delay.
Because of computer problems there will be a delay in the announcement of the winner.
If the applicant waits until the time of decision to complete this form, it can cause a serious delay in obtaining the visa document.
If you submit your application in person, there will be a delay of up to 48 hours following receipt of your application before you can enroll for classes.
Associated: delay (verb) 28,40
deliberate[adjective] intentional, not by accident
He was expelled from school for a deliberate attempt to cheat in the end of year exams.
She broke the classroom clock, but I don't believe it was deliberate.
A student who fails to cite sources in a deliberate attempt to conceal the source of the work should be considered to be cheating.
The government of Israel again stated that the attack was not deliberate and that it would be investigated.
Associated: deliberately (adverb) Antonym: accidental Note: To deliberate is to think long and hard (before doing something). 5,10
deliver[verb] to provide (often by bringing to people)
The school needs to deliver the students' project work to the examination board before the end of the month.
The new government plans to deliver the best possible health service for all of its citizens.
This certificate program is a series of fully online courses that will show you how to design and deliver a quality course via the Internet.
Bali has failed to deliver a proposed ten year program to work on sustainable production and consumption.
Associated: delivery (noun) 47,10
demand[noun] a need or desire for
The school offers Latin but there is no demand for the subject among teachers and parents.
The demand for oil is likely to increase as people in developing countries such as China and India acquire cars.
Simply exporting surplus graduates is not itself a policy problem if there is a demand for those graduates.
The new economies of Chile and Costa Rica have little demand for poor, unskilled and uneducated workers.
Associated: demand (verb) Note: A common meaning of the verb to demand is to insist, as in I demand to see the headmaster! 55,60
demonstrate[verb] to show
The science teacher planned to demonstrate how water evaporates more quickly in hot temperatures.
Can you please demonstrate how to make a table in Microsoft Word. I've read the instructions but don't understand them.
Candidates must demonstrate a high level of responsibility, the ability to work independently, and a strong commitment to customer service.
We were not able to demonstrate statistically significant differences in performance or quality.
Associated: demonstration (noun) Note: Another common meaning of demonstration is street gathering of people protesting about something, as in There was a large demonstration outside Parliament yesterday. A demonstrator is someone who takes part in a street demonstration. 92,70
denote[verb] to mean; to be a sign of
It is not clear what these symbols at the end of the webpage denote.
The word 'gay' did not come to denote 'homosexual' until quite recently.
These grades denote that the student has attained an acceptable level of competence.
The use of this seemingly simple system does not denote an undeveloped technological ability on the part of 9th century Hindus.
Associated: denotation (verb) 22,30
dense[adjective] thick; full; detailed
This book has much dense text that will make it difficult for ESL students.
Before the ban on smoking in public places there was usually a dense cloud of smoke at the end of the evening in bars and restaurants.
Obviously the result of many years of reading and reflection, this dense study contains detailed summaries of dozens of works, both major and minor.
When the moisture condenses, heat is released into the air, making it warmer and less dense than its surroundings.
Associated: density (noun) 9,60
deny[verb] to refuse ( responsibility for doing or saying something); to say that something is not correct
They still deny copying the work from the internet, but I ran a Google search and found it immediately.
The government was unable to deny that it was considering invading North Korea.
He certainly could not deny the existence of major problems.
The Committee will deny the request for disability payment if the disability is not adequately documented.
Associated: denial (noun) 17,80
depart[verb] to leave; to be different from
The late bus will depart at 5:30 today, not at 5:15 as usual.
It is important that the government does not depart significantly from what it promised during the elections.
The court concluded that the order did not depart from the essential requirements of law.
The tour bus will depart from Eisenstadt to travel over the border to Hungary to visit the summer palace built by Prince Nicolaus.
The World Bank plans to donate 50% more money to developing countries in the new year.
If you don't need your old furniture, you could donate it to the youth club.
We hoped to find relevant data on why certain people donate time and money and others don't.
As a result of the efforts over this last year, SAGE was able to donate books to more than 30 deserving schools in Illinois.
Associated: donation (noun) 46,80
doubt[noun] a feeling of uncertainty (whether something is true)
There is some doubt that she will turn in her work on time. She's not very reliable.
There was little doubt that the government's plans to increase taxes would be very unpopular.
Kennan had no doubt that the Soviets had regional, if not global, ambitions.
The outcome of the conflict remains very much in doubt.
Associated: doubt (verb) 27,60
drain[verb] to take away; to get rid of
You will drain students of their ability to think for themselves if you never set them challenging questions.
The proposed changes to the new law will drain it of all its power.
Use positive words and phrases; don't drain the energy of the interview by focusing on the negative.
Through appointments and legislation the President was able to drain the Constitution of much of its meaning, with no public reaction.
Associated: drain (noun) Note: A drain on the street is the metal object where the rain water disappears. 10,20
dramatically[adverb] very strongly, significantly
She will dramatically reduce her chances of success if she continues to drink so much.
The government are concerned about the dramatically small number of people who voted in the last election.
Colorado State University scientists have found a way to dramatically improve the quality of laser light at extremely short wavelengths.
The numbers of overweight and obese children worldwide are expected to climb dramatically by 2010.
Associated: dramatic (adjective) 14,20
drastic[adjective] severe; great
She is going to fail the course unless there is a drastic improvement in her efforts.
The company directors made a drastic attempt to save the business by dismissing half the workforce.
The State Department has seen a drastic increase in passport applications being filed since a recent change in policy.
Before economists implement drastic measures to reduce population growth, further studies should be performed.
Associated: drastically (adverb) 2,90
drawback[noun] disadvantage, problem
The only drawback of having computers in the classroom is that they are loud and make the room hot.
A significant drawback of winning the bid for the next Olympic Games is that it will cost the country an enormous amount of money.
This method is simple but has a significant drawback.
They simply decided for various reasons that his age was not a drawback, that perhaps (at that time and for that position) it was an advantage.
Associated: Antonym: benefit 2,90
due[preposition] as a result of, because of
She will not be in school tomorrow due to an appointment at the dentist.
Profits have declined due to the massive increase in the cost of oil.
Campus schedules change due to snow.
The dramatic drop in teen smoking is due to the N.C. Health and Wellness tobacco program.
Note: When due is used as a preposition in this way, it must be followed by to. An exact synonym is span class="extraFullWord">owing to .. . Another common meaning of due is the date on something has to be done, as in Don't forget. Your project is due tomorrow. 102,00
duration[noun] period of time
Most of the families at our international school are here for a duration of 2-3 years
The duration of the Earth's orbit around the sun is 365 days.
Successful applicants will have to provide evidence of medical insurance for the duration of their stay in the Ukraine.
The Board will consider a leave for a President for a duration of approximately one month for each two years of service.
Associated: during (preposition) 32,80
duty[noun] responsibility, or job that you are required to do
It is the duty of every teacher to be prepared for class and to do everything he or she can to help the students learn.
The government has the duty of protecting its citizens from terrorist attack, but many people do not agree with the way it is trying to do this.
It is the duty of educators to prepare themselves carefully for each and every lesson.
The ambassador seems to have failed in his duty to correctly inform the government he serves.
dynamic[adjective] changing; growing; energetic
Not everyone likes dynamic webpages with lots of movement and sound.
China has experienced dynamic growth in the last few years.
An exciting and dynamic teacher will receive more positive results than a teacher who is boring and low key.
If we want to maintain support for an open and dynamic economy, our programs need to become as flexible and adaptable as the economy itself.
She has not been making much effort in the last few weeks. I think the counselor should talk to her and find out if anything is wrong.
Scientists have so far been unsuccessful in their effort to find a cure for cancer.
I expect each student to put significant effort into every assignment, providing the foundation for rich and engaging classroom discussions.
Surprisingly little effort, however, has been devoted to the scientific study of how to prevent teenage pregnancy.
elaborate[adjective] detailed; complex
There's no need to give an elaborate answer, Two or three short sentences will be enough.
The government has announced elaborate plans to reduce long-term unemployment.
The former assumes a single step - that life originated on Earth - ahead of the more elaborate idea that life formed elsewhere and was subsequently transported to Earth.
Perhaps the most elaborate example of an arthropod joint, indeed one of the most complex skeletal structures known, is the wing hinge of insects.
Associated: elaborately (adverb); elaboration (noun); elaborate (verb) Note: When elaborate is used as a verb, its second and last syllables are sounded strongly. When it is used as an adjective, only its second syllable is sounded strongly. 8,10
elect[verb] to choose by voting
I am hoping that the students will elect a non-native speaker onto the school council.
In the USA and Germany the people elect a new government every four years; in the UK it is every five years.
During its congress, Committee failed to elect even one woman to a leading position.
Students will need to elect a spokesperson to speak for their group and come to an agreement about their decision.
Associated: election (noun) Note: An elective is a subject that the student can choose to take if he or she wishes. It is not compulsory. 25,00
element[noun] aspect, part
One element of the problem that we have not yet considered is: How are we going to pay for it?
Intelligence is just one element in being a successful student. You also have to show initiative and perseverance.
Since it was founded in 1999, the partnership program has been a key element in the dramatic increase in applications to the College.
Transportation is not an important element in the marketing cost of the new product.
It was a very elementary problem. All the students were able to solve it within 5 minutes.
A famous saying of Sherlock Holmes was: " Elementary, my dear Watson! "
If he is correct this would certainly be an elementary solution to an ancient problem.
While the book is not elementary, it is quite readable.
eligible[adjective] being entitled or qualified to do something
Any student who is at least 13 years old on September 30 is eligible to enter the mathematics competition.
Some people believe that smokers should not be eligible for free medical treatment.
That plan specifies that only the top 12.5 percent of California high school graduates should be considered eligible for UC admission.
Edwards ruled on the evidence presented and said Gary Edwards was not eligible to play.
If you could eliminate some of the unnecessary spelling and punctuation errors, your work would be even better.
The government will never eliminate drug-taking, but it should do more to reduce the number of school-age drug users.
The future energy system will need to eliminate the unacceptable risk that the present system places on the environment.
Soviet nationality studies demonstrate that the state was not able to eliminate discrimination based on ethnicity.
Associated: elimination (noun) 41,70
embody[verb] to be a good example of ..
Our teachers embody the school's philosophy that only excellence is good enough.
The failures of the national soccer and tennis teams embody all that is wrong with British sport.
It is a particular privilege to welcome several San Francisco State University alumni who embody all that we commemorate today.
All of his projects embody the idea of flexibility within different, changing environments.
Associated: embodiment (noun) 5,00
emerge[verb] to come out; to become known
It started to emerge after much questioning that the reasons for his bad behaviour were problems at home.
Unfortunately, many drug users emerge from prison only to find themselves back there a few months later. This is because they cannot find or keep a job, and need to steal to finance their drug-taking habits.
As people are defining a process or a problem, sometimes solutions emerge in that moment, in the detail of their description.
However, continuous and systematic research on the disaster did not emerge until after World War II.
Associated: emergence (noun) 23,40
emphasize[verb] to stress, to say something strongly
I need to emphasize the importance of meeting the project deadlines.
Let me emphasize again that you must work alone; you are not permitted to get help from anyone else.
Both of these programs can be amended as needed to emphasize a particular area of vocabulary.
Army leadership must emphasize the importance of reducing energy demand to decrease costs.
Associated: emphasis (noun) Note: Emphasize is also spelled emphasise. 35,10
employ[verb] to give a job to someone; to use
His father is going to employ him at the office during the vacation so that he can make a bit of money.
German businesses have started to employ an increasing number of older people. They are often better, more reliable workers.
Health care workers should consider all human blood and body fluids as potentially infectious and must employ appropriate protective measures.
You will be required to know the questions and issues that the various authors raise and the approaches they employ in their research.
Associated: employment (noun) Note: Employ is the basis for many useful words such as employer (boss), employee (worker), unemployment (the state of having no work), etc. 35,40
enable[verb] to make something or someone able to do something
The information that you receive in today's lesson will enable you to complete your project on nuclear energy.
Mobile phones enable parents to keep in contact with their children when they are out with their friends
Our results did not enable us to determine whether SMR or MOEE had reached minimum values.
We are focused on creating the technology and applications that will enable daily media consumers to become daily media producers.
Associated: Antonym: disable Note: If someone is disabled , it usually means that they have a disability that prevents them from doing everything that a healthy person can do; e.g. work, walk around, etc. 87,60
encounter[verb] to meet or experience
You will encounter many difficulties but if you persist in your efforts, you will succeed.
The government is certain to encounter opposition to its proposal.
Some institutions did not encounter these issues because they predicted them and dealt with them in advance.
Students are able to use basic communication and mathematics skills for purposes and situations they will encounter throughout their lives.
Associated: encounter (noun) 31,20
encourage[verb] to move someone to do something by positive talk; support or help
I encourage you to spend part of the summer vacation reading. This is an excellent way to improve your English.
The government wants to encourage young mothers in poor areas to attend parenting classes.
How can the traditional classroom and the technology in it encourage deeper learning?
It is the president who will need to encourage the strategic thinking and action necessary to attract and retain employees of quality.
Buying a lunch ticket in advance will entitle you to a free drink.
A regular driving license does not entitle the license holder to drive a bus or a truck.
This validation will identify him/her as a "special student" and will entitle him/her to the use of additional university facilities, such as the union building and the gym, and to free admissions for selected lectures.
The Supreme Court held that the free exercise of religion did not entitle an Orthodox Jew to wear a yarmulke when he was on duty as an officer of law.
exaggerate[verb] to "overstate" the truth; to say something is bigger or better than it really is
Do not exaggerate! You're only 10 years old. You couldn't have read thousands of books!
It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of the internet.
Advertising marketed directly to the consumer may minimize the risks and exaggerate the benefits of medications.
We should not exaggerate the costs, minimize the benefits of what we have already achieved, or downplay the risk of failure to persevere.
Associated: exaggeration (noun) 1,70
examine[verb] to look at carefully
If you want to examine very small objects, you will need a good microscope.
The government plans to examine the research data carefully before making an announcement.
In this class, we will examine the controversy about the risks generated by the war on terror.
We have had no chance to examine changes of this sort systematically, but simply offer them as examples of processes that we expect to be completed.
Associated: examination (noun) 90,90
exceed[verb] to be more than or better than
Your good grades in the report exceed my expectations. Well done!
The company's target for the year was to expand sales by €2 million. Now they expect to exceed this figure by 40%.
The summary must not exceed three pages in length.
The substantial advantages of these close personal relationships far exceed the disadvantages of remaining small.
Associated: excess (noun) 41,70
except[preposition] (but) not
You can take any book except this one. I'm reading it.
The doctor examined the patient carefully, except that he forgot to check blood pressure.
The campus will be closed except for needed emergency services and essential work.
Even more extraordinary, every child except one was more than willing to state his or her name to the stranger.
Associated: exception (noun) Note: In example sentence 2 above except is being used as a conjunction. Something that is exceptional is extremely good, outstanding , as in That was an exceptional piece of work. Well done! 45,10
exchange[verb] to give or change one thing and get a different thing
Please exchange your books and check each other's writing.
The government is thinking of passing a law that will require all house owners to exchange their oil heating system for one that runs on gas.
Students post messages and exchange ideas through the bulletin board.
If you discover that you have the wrong textbook, you must contact the source from which you purchased the book and make arrangements to exchange the book.
Associated: exchange (noun) 123,30
exclude[verb] to leave out; opposite of include
The new law will exclude unmarried mothers.
We should not exclude the possibility that house prices will begin to fall.
The researchers did not exclude people with known chronic disease from their study.
He said the debate now should exclude events of the past and the focus should be on what the UN, the US and Iraq could do to achieve the results.
Associated: exclusion (noun) Antonym: include 17,70
exercise[noun] a piece of work, activity
The next exercise will help you learn the difference between the present simple and present continuous tenses.
The university's plan to admit more students from poor backgrounds is an exercise that is not certain to succeed.
A scholarly essay is an exercise in developing and defending ideas.
Do NOT wait until the last minute to try to complete the exercise. If you wait until the day it is due, there is a good chance you will not finish on time.
Associated: exercise (verb) 32,00
exert[verb] to use
Her work is satisfactory, but she never exerts enough energy to get top grades.
Sometimes it is necessary to exert force in order to achieve peace in a troubled region.
In an effective group, each person can exert sufficient influence on the decisions of the group to prevent the group from setting unattainable goals.
Costrell also found it disturbing that the administration failed to exert its responsibility to ensure that the funds were appropriately spent.
Note: Another common meaning of exert is to make an effort (noun; exertion), as in She never seems to exert herself, but she always gets good grades. 7,40
exhaust[verb] to use up
Do not exhaust all your energy in the first 20 minutes. Remember that the game lasts for half an hour!
The school is overspending and will soon exhaust all the money set aside for books and other materials.
Students are encouraged to first exhaust all possibilities for Federal and state financial aid programs before seeking alternative loans.
In about 5 billion years, the sun will exhaust its fuel supply, and will puff up into a bloated star called a red giant.
Associated: exhaustive (adjective) Note: Exhausted / exhausting mean very tired / very tiring, as in I'm exhausted after doing all that exhausting work! 6,40
exhibit[noun] to show
Your answers exhibit a lack of care and effort.
The museum plans to exhibit a collection of late works by Picasso.
Students must exhibit a working knowledge of a foreign language by translating a mathematical passage into English.
Children in Experiment 2 did not exhibit any evidence of recognizing the familiarized words in the passages.
Associated: exhibition (noun) Note: An exhibition is permanent or temporary display of art or objects in a gallery or museum. 48,60
exist[verb] to be alive, to be in the world
Dinosaurs no longer exist - they have been extinct for millions of years.
If our planet were much farther from, or much closer to, the sun, for example, then life might not exist.
The Birth Control Pill may have modernized society, but it tore apart a nation and created many social problems that did not exist before its invention.
Ventures like Amazon.com will only continue to exist as long as they make money.
Associated: existence (noun) 84,30
expand[verb] to get bigger; to move into new areas
Metals expand when heated.
The business is hoping to expand into new markets in Africa.
Lincoln's early position as president was that slavery could remain in current slave states but could not expand to new states or territories.
This tells us that there is a very large market for us to expand into, if we take advantage of the opportunities as they arise.
Frankfurt International School has decided to found a student-teacher group to help with the education of students in the Kalahari.
The government intends to found a new organization to help young people find suitable jobs.
The single, vital, principle on which the true republic must found itself, he insists, is the principle of good-will.
Wilhelm Wundt began writing on psychology and psychophysics as early as 1858, even though he did not found his laboratory until 1879.
Associated: foundation (noun) Note: To found is a regular verb. Past tense: founded. 411,00
fragment[noun] part of something
I found a fragment of her homework on the cafeteria. It looked like half the school had stepped on it!
Archaeologists can often come to an understanding of people who lived long ago just by examining the fragment of a pot or bone.
To test for a fragment sentence, see if it can stand alone and still mean something.
Van Haarlem also said the team had found a large fragment of what may have been a ceramic baboon statue.
Associated: fragment (verb); fragmentary (adjective) 7,90
Her mother is a frequent visitor to the school. In fact she comes two or three times a week!
The most frequent problems were inappropriate vocabulary, comprising 40%. of the total errors.
Flights from Athens to the island are on small planes which fill up quickly; they are not very frequent and are often booked several months in advance.
A frequent error in editing is to fix a word or phrase at one part of a sentence and not see that the fix affected something else in the sentence.
Associated: frequency (noun); frequently (adverb) Antonym: infrequent 21,30
friction[noun] problems or arguments between two people or groups
At first there was a little friction between the Japanese and Korean students, but this soon passed.
The shortening of the lunch break caused friction between the workers and the management.
Our committee was asked to make recommendations to reduce the friction between teachers, parents and students, and improve the three-way partnership.
Beethoven was not an ideal parent and enormous friction developed between the two, contributing to his son's attempted suicide in 1826.
Note: The scientific meaning of friction is the force that stops two things sliding off each other, as in Bicycle brakes work by using friction. 5,90
frustrate[verb] to stop or prevent
Badly- behaved students often frustrate the learning of other students in the class.
Demonstrators tried to frustrate the opening of the new airport runway.
She accepted the arduous task of vice president, according to the papers, saying that she could not frustrate the will of the people.
They must not be allowed to frustrate the emergence of a competitive market economy.
Associated: frustration (noun) Note: Common derivations of this word are frustrated / frustrating to describe feelings of not being able to do or have what you want. Example: My email keeps breaking down. It's so frustrating. 1,50
fulfill[verb] to do; to carry out (completely)
The school found it impossible to fulfill its promise to reduce tuition fees.
It is impossible for the government to fulfill the wishes of all its citizens.
Students who are awarded an International Student Scholarship must fulfill the following requirements each semester in order to continue receiving this award.
Even with support, because of his health and limits on the hours he could work, he was unable to fulfill the duties of the typical teaching job.
Associated: fulfilment (noun); fulfilling (adjective) Note: This word is also spelled fulfil . 36,30
function[noun] job or role
The function of the arteries is to transport oxygen around the body.
The main function of the committee is to recommend a plan for future development.
Court asserted that education was perhaps the most significant function of state and local governments.
A primary function of the system is to facilitate the sharing of information with others.
Associated: function (verb) 148,60
fund[noun] money collected for a particular purpose
The school has set up a fund so that less wealthy students can attend.
The government has cut its fund for research into the causes of cancer.
Visit our Student Support page to see how you can set up a fund to give someone the opportunity to pursue higher education at Michigan Tech.
The partners realized that their small fund was not sufficient to support early stage start-ups in the environment of the early 2000s.
Associated: fund (verb) Note: A refund is money returned to the person who paid it (e.g. because she paid too much or could not be given what she ordered). 81,40
fundamental[adjective] very important
It is of fundamental importance that you learn academic vocabulary.
Many people believe that the invasion of Iraq was a fundamental mistake.
They have made a fundamental error in the way they are thinking about the opportunities and problems their business face.
Abortion is not a fundamental right; it can be limited if the state wishes.
Associated: fundamentally (adverb) 43,60
furthermore[adverb] also, in addition
Your work is late. Furthermore, it is very short. Please come after school to do it again.
Many learners of English have problems with the spelling. Furthermore, many Asian students find the articles extremely difficult to use correctly.
It is our belief that the students were not given a fair hearing, and furthermore that the punishment was unjust.
Furthermore, the system can also measure environmental conditions in the immediate surroundings including ambient light level, humidity, and temperature.
gain[noun] to get; to increase in ..
I hope to gain a good grade in my grammar test.
House prices in England have continued to gain in value every year for the past century.
Cocaine did not gain much popularity in the United States until the 1960s.
Participants will gain in-depth exposure to each topic through classroom assignments and structured exercises within team environments.
Associated: gain (verb) Antonym: lose Note: A popular athlete's expression about the need for hard physical work is: No pain, no gain! 75,60
gap[noun] space, opening or time between
A common kind of language problem is to fill in the gap in a sentence with a missing word.
Many young people fill in the gap between school and university by travelling around the world for a few months.
The June 1992 Gender Equity Study found a significant gap in salaries between men and women.
The gap between Russia's dominant military power and our own inferior power could not be bridged overnight.
gather[verb] to bring or get together
It is easy to use the internet to gather a lot of information. Whether it is of good quality is a different matter!
The police need to gather more evidence before they can make any arrests.
First, you will need to gather background information about all of the supporting questions.
After several years of work, the project team was not able to gather the political support needed to maintain funding for the integrated service program.
Associated: gathering (noun) Note: Another meaning of gather (verb) is understand, have heard, as in I gather your not coming to my party. 35,10
I generally come to school by bus, but my father is driving me this week.
It is generally impossible to get into university unless you have done well in school.
The government generally did not take steps to investigate or punish the most serious cases of abuse.
The method of evaluation used will be determined by the instructor but will generally include a combination (or all) of the following: homework, quizzes, exams, and a comprehensive final exam.
Associated: general (adjective) Note: A useful alternative expression is in general . Example In general his work is good, but recently it has deteriorated. 75,20
generate[verb] to make or produce
The bank didn't think that her idea would generate enough money so they refused to finance it.
Scientists hope that in the future wind power will be able to generate 50% of the electricity we need.
This is a controversial point that will generate much debate in the classroom, mainly among graduate students.
These were very industrialized nations but their economies did not generate the high levels of consumer spending we see in the First World.
Associated: generation (noun) Note: A generator is a machine to produce electricity. 73,80
generation[noun] group of people all born around the same time
In many families precious objects like jewelry or photographs are handed down from one generation to the next.
The current generation of children is usually thought to be less polite and hard-working than the previous one.
We wish to employ women who want to invent, create, and design the next generation of computers, and computing methodology.
The cold, hard truth is that your parents' generation was more open to experimentation, social change and an overall 'looser' way of life.
genuine[adjective] real and authentic
I don't believe you made a genuine effort to improve. Your grades certainly have not got better.
Is this a genuine picture by Picasso or is it a fake?
You have received this e-mail in the genuine belief that its contents would be of interest to you.
DeRosa's success is a genuine example of how the right environment and excellent faculty really can cause a scholarly transformation.
Associated: genuinely (adverb) Antonym: fake 8,30
Global warming is a problem that we will hear more and more about.
The most famous global organization is the United Nations.
Pick a global issue and collect a series of newspaper articles and/or news clips on it during the semester.
Giuliani's leadership during New York City's darkest hours of the September 11th terrorist attacks earned him global praise and admiration.
I have no intention of being a teacher when I leave school. I want to earn more money!
The company's intention was to increase sales by 20%. Due to the high cost of oil in the past year, it was not successful.
From the outset of the gulf crisis, President George Bush stated that it was not his intention to harm the Iraqi people.
It is my firm intention to remain with my department for at least two years.
Associated: intend (verb) 15,90
interact[verb] to react, to affect and be affected
It's good to see students of different nationalities interact so naturally as they do at our school.
Medical scientists have done extensive research on individual drugs but they do not know so much how drugs interact with each other
About a quarter of the elementary and secondary students typically did not interact with the teacher at all during class.
Biological processes interact strongly with physical and chemical processes to create the planetary environment.
Associated: interaction (noun) 51,30
interfere[verb] to prevent; to harm
He has a heavy accent but this does not interfere with understanding what he means.
Stopping work to look after a new-born child must not be allowed to interfere with a woman's career chances.
Storage of personal information not related to university business must be limited and must not interfere in any way with the storage and maintenance of university data.
Errors in grammar and vocabulary may, but do not always, interfere with comprehensibility.
Associated: interference (noun) Note: Another common meaning of interfere is to involve oneself in a situation where one's involvement is unwanted, as in Please don't interfere. It's none of your business! 17,00
The interior of the new science building is not finished yet, but from the outside it looks great!
It was not until about 500 years ago that scientists and doctors began to examine the interior of the human body.
The Earth's interior is divided into four layers, which is typical of rocky planets.
Injuries occur when there is a certain blow or pressure against the head, damaging the interior of the brain.
The margin between success and failure is often very small.
The government won the election by a huge margin.
The faculty is, by a wide margin, the most productive, widely cited, and influential law faculty in the country.
President Bush will leave the next president with absolutely no margin of error in dealing with some of the most critical challenges this country has faced.
Note: The margin of a piece of paper is the 2-3 centimeter strip down the left or right side of the paper. Teachers like to write comments in the margin of students' written work. 16,80
massive[adjective] very large
She has massive problems with her spelling. There was hardly a word she got right in the dictation.
There was a massive demonstration on the streets of London to protest the government's plans to go to war in Iraq.
Ours is the only generation that can prevent a massive loss of biological diversity.
As a result of the massive amount of evidence for evolution accumulated over the last two centuries, we can safely conclude that evolution has occurred.
Associated: massively (adverb) 14,70
master[verb] to (gain) control
She is yet to master basic verb grammar. She often says He do .. instead of He does ...
It takes a lot of training to master the skills in professions such as car mechanics or cooking,
Teacher trainees will need to master problem-solving strategies that offer clear practical solutions to issues that affect those in poverty.
It was a ridiculous fear, but she was unable to master it.
Associated: mastery (noun) 214,20
materials[noun] the things you need to do something
Please bring all your materials to class. That includes your homework planner and dictionary.
Many universities make their materials available to students online.
Students are responsible for gathering all materials necessary to support an appeal.
Individuals are granted the use of the materials on this website without written permission provided that all of the following conditions are met.
Note: In the singular material has a broader meaning. For example: The teacher has given us a lot of material to read by Monday. (Use your dictionary to find other meanings.) 199,40
She has no means of studying in peace at home. Her domestic life is too chaotic.
The company is investigating means of increasing its business in Asia and Africa.
Online students need a means of realistically assessing their readiness for the demands of taking a course in the online environment.
At this stage of our research we were unable to find a means for accessing the actual decisions made in these cases.
measure[verb] to find out how much there is of something
It is not always easy to measure student progress.
However, in those studies, he was unable to measure the campaign's effectiveness in reaching the people of Uganda.
Tests are valid when they measure what they claim to measure, and reliable when they measure consistently.
Over the same period research was unable to measure significant effects on achievement from readily available school characteristics.
Associated: measurement (noun) Note: Another important meaning of measure (noun) is action taken to achieve a goal , as in The government needs to think of alternative measures for dealing with the problem. With this meaning the noun is usually found in the plural. 110,40
mechanism[noun] procedure, process
There is a very clear mechanism in the school for expelling students who do not follow the rules.
An enormous amount of research has been conducted into the mechanism by which young children learn to speak.
There is no mechanism in the master plan to assess whether or not we are doing what we are supposed to do.
We still don't know if this is really the correct mechanism to explain the imbalance between matter and antimatter that we observe.
medium[adjective] in the middle
In the school cafeteria, you can buy drinks of different sizes: small, medium and large.
The police are looking for a woman of medium height, last seen wearing a red jacket
The donors specified that they would like to help hardworking students with medium grades who deserve help.
The scientists advising EPA said they believe there is a medium chance that the corn is an allergen.
member[noun] a person who is part of a team or other organization
If you are a member of the school orchestra should have lunch early and come to the practice at 12.30.
The police have arrested a man who they say is a member of a terrorist organization.
Do I have to be a member of the Society to submit a paper?
Nazi paramilitary organization was compulsory, although he was never a member of the Nazi party and his family opposed Hitler's regime.
mental[adjective] of the brain or mind
The student was suffering from mental and physical problems as a result of taking drugs for several months.
Not all patients with mental disabilities need to stay in hospital.
The ASVAB is a mental ability test given to all potential entrants to the Armed Services.
Later in 1975, the APA announced that homosexuality was not a mental disorder and in 1994 they acknowledged that it was neither a mental illness nor a moral deficiency.
Associated: Antonym: physical 44,70
mention[verb] to say; state
If you are going on the field trip, do not forget to mention if you need a special diet.
Children visiting the internet chatrooms are advised not to mention their real names.
The 9-11 Commission failed to mention or address the multiple war game exercises that were being conducted that day, out of the White House.
When we ask people to describe their characters when they are at their best, they mention confident, hopeful, humorous, optimistic, resourceful.
Associated: mention (noun) 45,90
merely[adverb] only, just, simply
She merely has to start attending school regularly. That will solve all her problems.
Not many people will change their habits or lifestyle merely because a government minister tells them it's a good idea.
Some assignments will be graded; others will merely receive a check-mark.
The trial court noted that the newspaper articles merely reported events and provided no editorial comment.
Associated: mere (adjective) 21,00
method[noun] a way of doing something
I have a good method of getting my class to be quiet. I tell them a joke.
There is more than one successful method to teach and learn a foreign language.
It is not the only method of teaching we use at the university; instead we calibrate our teaching techniques to fit our abilities.
Probably every introductory science text in the world includes a first chapter section on the scientific method.
migrate[verb] to go to another place
Many birds migrate south in the winter to find warmer temperatures.
People are more likely to migrate in times of war or economic poverty.
Teachers did not migrate because of students behaving badly but rather because student behavior was not adequately managed.
Workers will migrate to where wages are higher.
Associated: migrant (noun); migration (noun) Note: Migrate is the basis of common words such as immigrate (come into a country) / immigrant / immigration - emigrate (leave a country) / emigrant / emigration. 7,10
military[adjective] to do with army
The school took the students on a visit to the history museum to see a special exhibition of Roman military equipment.
The government has increased military spending by 50% in the last two years.
Arming the Bosnian Serbs was regarded as a political rather than a military issue.
The continued presence of a huge military force in the Gulf area provides the necessary element of pressure to ensure implementation of obligations.
Associated: military (noun) 48,30
minimum[noun] the smallest amount; the least
You must write a minimum of 3 pages for your final report.
Many countries have a minimum wage - this is the smallest amount of money that people may earn for a full-time job.
Students may take a longer time to complete this program, but a minimum of two semesters shall be devoted to full-time work and normally the program must be completed within eight calendar years.
When a satisfactory minimum has been found using limits, the limits should then be removed if possible, in order to perform or re-perform the error.
Associated: minimize (verb) Antonym: maximum Note: Minimize can also be spelled minimise. 94,20
minor[adjective] small, not important
There are one or two minor spelling problems but in general this is an excellent piece of writing.
The company does a minor amount of business in the USA; the majority of its trade is in Europe.
Studies have proven that taste is only a minor consideration in the purchase decision for soft drinks.
Unfortunately, hunger is no minor problem in the United States, where the disparity between the affluent and the indigent is considerable.
Associated: Antonym: major 51,90
The test will be a mixture of reading comprehension passages and short writing texts.
In order to get people to change unhealthy habits, the government needs to use a mixture of the carrot and the stick.
The results represented an unusual mixture of old and modern practices.
The objective is to find the right mixture of materials that will result in the creation of clear electrical signals.
Associated: mix (verb) 16,90
mobile[adjective] moving; able to move
Many families at Frankfurt International School are mobile. They can expect to leave for a new country after a year or two.
In order to get a good job it is important to be mobile.
A nursing or household robot must be mobile in order to reach a variety of working sites within the house.
The North Viet Namese Army was not mobile enough to outflank southern forces.
neither[conjuntion] not one or the other; not either
Neither of the history classes he teaches this year has made very good progress.
The government neither intends to comment on the event nor even to admit that it actually happened.
We can say for certain is that neither of the numbers in the pair is zero.
It is known that organizations do not adapt readily or easily; many organizations that change do so in ways that are neither successful nor effective.
Note: Neither has various functions. It can be used as a pronoun, adjective, conjunction or adverb. In example sentence 1 and 3 above neither is a pronoun; in 2 and 4 it is a conjunction. 25,10
neutral[adjective] neither for nor against; neither positive nor negative
Most students are neutral about the suggestion to replace the blackboards with whiteboards.
Some countries, such as Switzerland, remained neutral in the last world war.
Consequently, the percentages will not sum to 100% because many students were neutral on the questions in the survey.
The use of gender- neutral language may seem unnecessary to some writers, but the consistent use of masculine pronouns leaves the impression that women could not be among the group to which the writer is referring.
She has worked very hard. Nevertheless I don't think she has a chance of passing the course.
Most people were against the plan to boycott the Olympics. Nevertheless, the government decided to do so.
Though Sima and Codreanu both attempted to prevent the murder, it nevertheless took place, and produced harsh consequences.
The treatment has, nevertheless, been very successful in alleviating the problems of vitamin A deficiency.
Note: A close, but less common, synonym of nevertheless is nonetheless. 18,60
notice[verb] to see or realize
The teacher did not notice that one of the students had been crying for most of the lesson.
The government surely cannot fail to notice that its attempts to reduce teenage pregnancy are not working.
If you look at the course policies you will notice an item that accounts for 4% of your grade.
He did not notice the problem until too late.
Associated: notice (noun) Note: A notice is a piece of paper put up somewhere with information for people to read, as in Did you see the notice outside the library saying that all their computers are down?. 132,90
notion[noun] idea; concept
She has the notion that she can pass the examinations without doing any work.
Most people today agree with the notion that men and women are equal.
Research strongly supports the notion that publishing houses lack sufficient diversity in both high and middle-level staff members.
The notion that more nuclear weapons lead to a safe world is irrational.
He came up with a novel excuse for not doing his homework, but his teacher did not believe him.
Advertising agencies are always looking for novel ways to sell boring product like washing powder or packet soups.
In this article, a novel way of teaching chemistry is presented that uses contemporary music and chemical lyrics to educate.
Rusher readily admitted that his was not a novel idea.
Associated: novelty (noun) Note: Another common meaning of novel (noun) is a long fiction story, as in One of the most famous novels in the English language is Great Expectations. 34,80
numerous[adjective] very many
There are numerous students from Korea at Frankfurt International School.
There have been numerous attempts to build an intelligent robot, but so far no-one has been successful.
The essay asks students to complete several tasks, giving the students numerous examples of human rights cases.
Unfortunately, heroines of this sort are not numerous in oral tales, and do not exist at all in any of the Grimm tales.
obey[verb] to do as commanded or expected
If you do not obey the rules of the classroom, you will be sent to the headmaster.
The machine did not work properly because the person installing it did not obey the instructions.
The last death occurred on Thursday morning when a deaf man apparently walking to work did not obey a police order to halt and was shot.
As the earthquake waves travel, they obey all of the principles of other types of wave motion.
If you offend against the school's computer use policy, you will not be permitted to use the computer labs.
Some people believe that harsh prison penalties for young criminals offend natural justice.
No matter how we talk and discuss normally, we now have to ensure that the way we talk must not offend any religious, ethnic, cultural, or political group.
Perhaps it is unfortunate that humor, by its nature of being based in ridicule, will always offend someone.
Associated: offence (noun); offender (noun) Note: Offence can also be spelled offense. 2,60
offer[verb] to ask if someone would like something (e.g. food or help)
I would offer to help you, but I've got no time now.
The directors say they are forced to close the factory, but they are going to offer the workers jobs in factories in different parts of the country.
He also responded that his particular school did not offer courses in English as a Second Language (ESL).
In all cases, employers must offer alternative dates for a second-round interview if the date originally suggested is inconvenient.
Associated: offer (noun) 182,70
official[adjective] approved by an authority
The official language of the school is English but many documents are also translated into German.
There has been no official statement about the number of soldiers who were killed in the fighting.
If you are applying from a country in which English is not the official language, you are required to submit evidence of English language proficiency.
We will also tell you how the precaution to take if you decide to use email as an official means of communication.
Associated: officially (adverb); official (noun) Antonym: unofficial Note: An official is a person with authority such as a policeman, as in Government officials are always telling us what to do. 75,40
omit[verb] to leave something out or not do something
Please omit me from the trip list. I will not be able to go.
In some English reported speech sentences you can omit the word that. For example, He said (that) he was sick.
Do not omit the period after an abbreviation such as in. (for inch), which could be confused with the word in.
You should omit your name from the copies of the items you submit.
Associated: omission (noun) 8,50
operation[noun] procedure; happening; process
The opening of the new sports block was the biggest operation in the school's history.
Computer hard disk cleaning is not an operation that many people perform very frequently.
Odland demonstrated the ability to run a significant operation with a wide geographical spread.
Seed cleaning is not an operation that requires a large amount of labor.
Associated: operate (verb) Note: Another common meaning of operation is surgery (cutting into the body) , as in I need to have an operation to remove the lump on the back of my hand. 71,00
opinion[noun] view; what you think about someone or something
In my opinion she is going to fail course unless she starts making more effort.
The government is having difficulties getting people to change their opinion toward use of public transportation.
This opinion is subject to formal revision before publication in the university journal.
The court decided to ignore the opinion of the mental health specialist.
You have one last opportunity to show that you can work hard and behave properly. If you don't take it, you will be asked to leave the school.
The doctor took the opportunity to ask her patient if he had stopped smoking as promised.
Here is a good opportunity to get paid for conducting undergraduate research at UH through its Summer Research Program.
King Charles not only lost the opportunity to establish an independent kingdom; he also lost his life.
Associated: opportune (adjective) 195,60
oppose[verb] to be against or fight against something
I oppose the idea of having a school uniform. I think it would cause a lot of unnecessary problems.
Many people oppose the ban on smoking in public places, but the majority are in favour of it.
While we must oppose all terrorism, and we have many local enemies in various parts of the world.
The Roman Catholic Church along with the main Protestant denominations in Europe did not oppose the slave trade.
Associated: opposition (noun) Antonym: favour 8,80
optional[adjective] not necessary or compulsory; can do it if you want
The last part of the homework is optional. You can do it if you want but you don't have to.
The government plans to offer optional parenting classes for young, unemployed couples.
Attending lectures is not optional: 100% attendance is required.
The final event of the day was an optional tour of the Single Sisters House, which is in the process of restoration.
Associated: option (noun); optionally (adverb) Antonym: compulsory Note: An option is a choice , as in You have two options: you can be quiet or you can leave the room. 27,40
order[noun] sequence, place
You have not got these words in the right order. In German the main verb must be the second element in the sentence.
The company has done things in the wrong order. It should not have built the next factory before employing people to work in it, not after.
Arrange the terms in the correct order from simplest to most complex.
The 1970 draft lottery, intended to pick birthdays in random order, didn't do a very good job of randomization.
Associated: order (verb) Note: Another common meaning of order (noun and verb) is command , as in The teacher gave the order to leave the room. A further common use is in the expression in order to as in I went to the library in order to use one of the computers. 312,00
ordinary[adjective] usual, typical, every day
She is no ordinary student. She can speak 5 languages and play the piano to a very high standard.
A popular kind of literature these days is about the lives of ordinary people who are caught up in extraordinary events such as war or terrorism.
It was not the ordinary noise of the battle-front that night; every soldier knew that a something different was going to happen.
One can fill a small book just describing the commonsense knowledge needed to solve an ordinary problem like how to get to the airport.
You need to organize your ideas a little better. It's difficult to follow what you are trying to say.
The government minister needed time to organize his reply to the criticisms made about his department.
Due to her student teaching commitments Murray was unable to organize this year's event.
They must organize their information so that it is easy for the observer to understand the historical significance of their event.
Associated: organization (noun) Note: The most common meaning of organization is a large group of people working for a common purpose , as in Greenpeace is an organization that works to protect the environment. 42,60
original[adjective] the first of its kind
This looks like a copy. Can you please give me the original sheet.
The company's original plan was to close down only one of their factories. Because of continuing bad sales, however, they were forced to close three of them.
The picture on the left is the original picture. That on the right is a copy.
Summarizing or paraphrasing is expressing the original idea or information in your own words.
Associated: originate (verb); original (adjective); originally (adverb); origin (noun) Note: The origin of something is where or how it starts, as in Can anyone tell me the origin of the word spam (email spam)? 102,90
otherwise[conjuntion] or (else)
The school needs to attract new students otherwise one or two teachers will have to lose their jobs.
The store should consider reducing its prices, otherwise people will just not buy there.
Please add the missing information before submitting the form, otherwise it will be returned to you to complete.
Be prepared each time, otherwise you may be denied entry.
The outcome of our survey is that most students are against school uniform.
The outcome of the government's willingness to pay kidnappers to release hostages is that now there are more kidnappings and more hostages.
An unexpected outcome was that there was also significant improvement in composition as well as in math for these students during the academic year.
Further analysis suggested that the outcome was worse for women than men.
outline[noun] plan or summary
Before doing a longer piece of writing it is usually a good idea to make an outline to organize your main ideas.
The government gave an outline of its plans to change taxation. The full report will not be ready until next year.
If your exam is closed book, you will want to prepare an outline that will assist you in studying until the day of the exam.
This is a very brief and inadequate outline of a few of the leading points in a very large investigation with which I am occupied.
Associated: outline (verb) 42,20
This is an outstanding piece of work. Well done!
She will need an outstanding performance to have any chance of winning the game. Her opponent is much better.
If you are reliable and flexible, enjoy solving tasks independently and are committed to achieving outstanding performance, then this is the job for you.
This is yet another outstanding example of the positive partnership between TMH and the FSU College of Medicine.
Associated: outstandingly (adverb) 45,80
My overall opinion of him since he joined the class is very positive.
The government has made overall progress towards its goal of reducing child poverty.
Think about what you want to describe and the overall impression you want to give your readers.
Having access to the laptop does seem to have substantially increased the overall feeling of having adequate resources to do the job.
Associated: overall (adverb) 79,00
overcome[verb] to conquer, defeat
She was quickly able to overcome the difficulty of speaking little English, and now she is easily the best student in the class.
The government expects to overcome resistance from some people to the prohibition of smoking in public places.
What motives have thus incited him to overcome all the hardships and temptations he encountered on his way from a miserable life to an honorable one.
As a child, he began to stutter severely and, despite the best efforts of his teachers and parents, he was unable to overcome it.
overlap[verb] to have in common; to cover part of
The picture overlaps the writing, which makes it difficult to read.
The last week of the tennis tournament will overlap the first week of the Olympic Games.
Check your schedule to be sure that class times do not overlap.
Remember that more than one factor may be the cause of a problem and that symptoms may often overlap in their appearance.
Associated: overlap (noun) 21,20
She is being overly concerned about the exams. She will certainly pass.
It is not in the best interests of children if their parents are overly protective. of them.
It's always better to be overly cautious and to protect yourself by asking for a written contract.
While we were not overly surprised by the answers to our questions, it was interesting to see the amount of uniformity in answers.
Note: It is common to just use over and join it to the adjective with a hyphen: over-protective, over-ambitious, over-critical , etc. 4,90
override[verb] to take precedence over; to disregard
The wishes of parents must not always override the recommendations of the teachers about the course choices of the child.
The referee of a football match can override the offside flag of his or her linesman.
Whatever I write on the board in class as the next day's assignment will always override what is printed in the Class Schedule below.
People might be surprised to know that a similar situation had occurred in the US and that doctors and hospitals were allowed to override the family's wishes.
owe[verb] to be in someone's debt (especially money)
Remember that you owe me €20.
The government does not owe its citizens an explanation for every decision it makes.
If you are eligible for Financial Aid in excess of your tuition and fees then you do not owe Ivy Tech Community College money.
You owe us all an apology for using this forum for your personal beliefs when it is a forum for scientific reasoning.
own[verb] to have or possess
The school does not own the sports hall. It belongs to the local council, which charges the school to use it.
Many more people own a house in England than in Germany.
If you do not own a computer you should not enroll in the program.
I believe police agencies have no right to determine who can or cannot own guns.
Associated: owner (noun) 390,00
participate[verb] to take part
You should participate a little more in class discussions. This will help to improve your spoken English.
The company directors invited the workers' union to participate in a meeting to discuss the new factory.
Each student must participate in a group project during the second half of the semester.
She made it clear many times throughout the work that she did not believe in and did not want to participate in the concept and institution of marriage.
Associated: participation (noun) 150,30
She has no particular difficulties with English, but she just seems to be learning very slowly.
The government should pay particular attention to reducing unemployment among young people.
The English writing system itself causes no particular problems to Spanish learners.
There was a particular reason for this: psychologically, it fitted her deeply personal sense of the appropriate relationship between the sexes.
Associated: particularly (adverb) Note: Particularly means especially , as in That test was not particularly difficult. 114,40
passage[noun] a piece of written or spoken text
This passage in your writing doesn't make sense. What are you trying to say?
There was a passage at the end of Obama's speech that caused his audience to jump up and start clapping.
Looking up all the key words in an important passage should be considered a background check for all literary analysis.
The passage was not visible in its entirety on the computer screen.
passive[adjective] not active; unresponsive
She is so passive in German class. It's no wonder that she can hardly speak a word of the language.
The government cannot afford to be passive about the numbers of young people who fail to find any kind of employment.
Student surveys find teaching to be too uniformly didactic, and their learning too passive. Students report spending considerable class time just taking notes.
Desdemona is passive for much of the play and when she dies at the end, she takes the blame for her death.
Associated: Antonym: active 10,40
pattern[noun] clear and consistent behaviour
There is an obvious pattern to her absences from school: Monday mornings and Friday afternoons!
Research into heart disease has revealed a clear pattern: those who smoke too much, drink too much and do not exercise enough are the most likely to suffer from it.
The more information a sentence carries, the more it needs an evident pattern that the reader can follow.
There was no pattern to the spread of the disease.
Note: Pattern also refers to the lines and shapes on a piece of clothing, as in I like the pattern on your shirt! 54,40
penalty[noun] negative consequence; punishment
The penalty for her frequent absences will be a poor grade in the final exam.
London is becoming more and more unpleasant. The government needs to drastically increase the penalty for dropping litter.
If you choose not to participate or to withdraw from the study at any time, there will be no penalty.
They know, as well, that if they kill anyone without provocation they will be forced to pay a heavy penalty.
Associated: penalize (verb) Note: Another common meaning of penalty is from football, as in Ronaldo missed the penalty. 19,80
perceive[verb] to see; to become aware of with one of the senses; to think
If you look carefully, you will perceive that the ice is starting to melt.
It is difficult to perceive how the government can hope to win the forthcoming election.
Close to 30% of students did not perceive it to be cheating to lie to an instructor about having an illness or some other emergency in order to extend a work deadline.
Many of the students were unable to perceive the relevance of the mathematics they had learned and so could not make use of it.
Associated: perception (noun) 15,50
performance[noun] action or achievement
Her performance in the band concert was wonderful. She's probably the best piano player we have ever had at the school.
The shareholders were not pleased with the company's performance in the last quarter of the year.
List the specific things you did to achieve strong performance in your project.
These results suggest that being treated as a sex object can undermine women's performance in stereotypically masculine domains.
Associated: perform (verb); performer (noun) Note: Performance is most commonly used to refer to musical, theatrical or sporting activities. 178,60
perhaps[adverb] maybe, possibly
Maria is not here today. Perhaps she had to go to the doctor.
Perhaps the very hot, dry weather we have had for the last 6 weeks will convince some doubters that global warming is really happening.
Perhaps she did not know how to do the math and was embarrassed that younger kids understood what she could not.
This is perhaps a reason why the majority of past safety research has focused on organization and actions.
period[noun] a length of time (e.g. a lesson)
Please don't forget that you have a vocabulary test next period.
The time when Hitler was leader of Germany is possibly the most terrible period in all of history.
Nevertheless, even within the period 1550-1850 there was a great deal of temperature variation both in time and space.
Adolescents go through a difficult period of separating from their parents and becoming subject to increasing scrutiny from their peers.
permanent[adjective] lasting for ever or for a very long time
Do not write on the board with permanent ink. It cannot be erased.
The student must also have a permanent address within the 22 South Texas county area.
If you are an individual with a permanent disability, you may be eligible to obtain a discount.
It is common knowledge that credit cards are a temporary solution that can snowball into a permanent problem.
Some parents do not permit their daughters to go on school trips.
The airport authorities have decided to permit passengers to carry only very small amounts of liquid onto the plane.
The Law School will not permit you to take a course pass/fail unless you have received written permission.
As the advisor, you often have other responsibilities that do not always permit giving undivided attention to the organization.
Associated: permission (noun) Antonym: forbid Note: A permit (noun) is an official piece of paper allowing the holder to do something (cf. license) , as in You will need a permit if you want to fish here. 49,80
perpetual[adjective] continuing for ever; never disappearing
Her grades are low because of her perpetual inability to turn work in on time.
Many people believe that the 'war on terror' will be a perpetual war.
In the future, learning must be seen as perpetual, continuing across an individual's life, and integrated with all other aspects of living.
How do we approach the essential and perpetual problem of dealing with our own waste?
One enjoyable way to improve in English is to do plenty of reading.
There are plenty of things that the new government needs to change when it comes into power.
There will be plenty of time for questions after each speaker finishes their presentation.
Autumn is a time of plenty for home gardeners.
Associated: plentiful (adjective) 15,90
point[noun] purpose; reason; value
There is no point in turning on the computer. The monitor isn't working.
Many people do not see the point of trying to save money when interest rates are so low.
There is really no point in arguing which approach is better.
So, what's the point of all this hindsight and what do we stand to gain from it?
Note: Another meaning of point as a noun is score or mark , as in: This question is worth 4 points . A common meaning of point as a verb is to show with the finger, as in Can you point to the animal in this picture? 224,00
policy[noun] formal rules
The school has a policy of expelling any student who brings drugs into the building.
Not everyone agrees with the government's policy of putting illegal immigrants into prison.
I have read the terms of the University's Internet Access Policy and agree to abide by them.
He alleged that the state had adopted the policy of attacking the entire independent media rather than targeting individual journalists as in the past.
political[adjective] to do government and politics
A subject that interests many students at our school is political history.
Some government decisions are made for political reasons and others for economic reasons.
You will analyze recurrent patterns of international political conflict, identify underlying issues, and suggest alternative resolutions.
Aside from the significant political impact of the bill, it carries little weight and makes little difference.
My preliminary impression of him is that he is very intelligent and that his poor behaviour is because of boredom.
The government has made preliminary arrangements to control the number of demonstrators on the streets.
If the individual knows in advance when he or she wishes to apply for time away from the workplace, the individual should complete the preliminary request form.
This paper documents preliminary findings from a nationwide survey that investigates substance abuse.
prepare[verb] to get something ready (or to get ready for something)
If you have to give a speech you must prepare for it carefully. First write out speech cards, then practise at home with your parents.
Are you really doing everything you can to prepare for tests?
The US Senate voted yesterday to provide 4 billion for antiviral drugs and other measures to prepare for a feared influenza epidemic.
In the excitement of bringing the Internet into our classrooms, we sometimes forget to prepare our learners appropriately.
With winter weather comes the need to prepare your home, automobile and family to deal with the colder temperatures.
Associated: preparation (noun) Note: If you are prepared to do something, this means that you are ready and willing to not it. Example: The doctor was not prepared to give a reason for his decision. 114,60
present[verb] to give or show; to make a presentation
Remember that you will present your ecology poster to the rest of the class in tomorrow's lesson.
The government plans to present its report on adult education before the beginning of the summer vacation.
If you fail to present proper identification you will be billed 5.00 per test.
Your work will be penalized if you do not present it by the assigned deadline.
Associated: presentation (noun); presenter (noun) Note: Two more common meanings of present : 1. present (adjective) = here (opposite of absent), and 2. present (noun) = gift. 336,00
preserve[verb] to keep (safe)
It's difficult to preserve your good mood if it's hot and loud in the classroom, you have a headache, and the work is very boring.
Once a language has less than about a hundred speakers, it is almost impossible to preserve it.
Richards understood the importance of her position, the image that she projected and the need to preserve her papers and records at the Center.
"We hope to preserve the historic value of these buildings and encourage serious parties to step forward," said Michele Gougeon.
Associated: preservation (noun) 36,90
pressure[noun] force; influence; stress
Some students work well under pressure; others don't.
The government has come under pressure to reduce the tax on petrol because of the high cost of oil.
Women are not the only ones in American society who feel pressure to achieve the perfect body.
We can conclude that China is unlikely to put significant pressure on Sudan, and that Sudan could and would easily resist such pressure.
The new government has promised not to repeat the mistakes of the previous one.
In our previous class on binary counting, we found a way to represent numbers using just two digits, 0 and 1.
Yoo Jong-pil, spokesman of the DP, claimed Roh wanted to further distinguish himself from the previous government and humiliate the DP.
Ask the candidate to discuss what they believe to have been their most significant challenges and accomplishments in their current job or a previous job.
Associated: previously (adjective) Antonym: next 204,00
prime[adjective] most important
The prime advantage of a strong academic vocabulary is that it helps you to read school textbooks more efficiently.
The prime achievement of the government in its 5 years in office was to reduce child poverty.
Illegal immigration is not the prime reason so many poor young blacks are on the streets and why some turn to gangs, guns and drug dealing.
The Morningside Heights area in New York is a prime example of what Jacobs feels should not be done for city rebuilding.
Associated: primarily (adverb) Note: A close synonym of prime is primary, as in Passing this test is my primary concern. 18,00
principal[adjective] most important
Her frequent absence from school is the principal reason for her bad grades in the final exams
The principal problem facing the world this century is how to reduce global warming.
The rat lungworm, is the principal cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide.
Bush's principal argument for re-election is his war on terrorism, but in fact that's one of the principal reasons he should not be re-elected.
Note: Another common meaning of principal (noun) is leader of a school, as in The principal wants to see you - now! 46,20
Can you please explain the principle by which students are placed in ESL class?
The first principle of this school is that all nationalities and cultures are equally important, even if some are more represented than others among the body of students
Stated simply, this principle means that averaged over large enough distances, one part of the Universe looks approximately like any other part.
This principle can be applied to various educational and medical issues.
The notion of the student as the school's primary customer provides an important guiding principle for many of today's school reforms.
The Information Technology Committee has voted in favor of the principle of requiring all incoming freshmen to have a computer.
You should use the bathroom prior to coming to class.
There are very few people living today who were born prior to the first world war.
It is advisable that you put your name on these waiting lists prior to your arrival.
Prior to age 5, children have learned a number of things and developed in a number of ways.
Associated: prior(adjective) Note: The preposition prior must be followed by to (prior to = before). 71,00
priority[noun] first and most important task
Your priority is to learn the English words that will help you be successful in your school subjects.
The government's priority in his second term of office is to reduce child poverty.
The "Maximize" position says that we should give priority to whatever treatment produces the greatest net health benefit.
Students engaging in scheduled curricular work have priority over other students.
Associated: prioritize (verb) 39,20
privilege[noun] a right (to do something)
Only seniors have the privilege of using this room. You will have to wait until you are in grade 12.
The management is considering removing the salesmen's privilege to use company cars at the weekend for private purposes.
Access to the data network is both an essential tool for university life and work, and a valuable privilege.
He has lost the privilege of being himself. Immigration laws have required him to pretend to be somebody else.
The most probable reason for the bad test scores is that the teacher was new and inexperienced.
The probable cause of the accident is that the driver fell asleep, but police are investigating the possibility of a terrorist attack.
Fire Chief Anthony Yenzer said the probable cause of the fire was determined shortly afterwards through interviews with the two male students.
it is not probable that any thing better will be discovered than what was known to our fathers.
Associated: probably (adverb); probability (noun) Antonym: improbable 7,60
procedure[noun] the way to do something
The procedure for recording TV programmes onto a video cassette is often very complicated.
The procedure for writing such a report consists of the following steps: Choosing a subject; Finding sources of materials; Gathering the notes, etc.
Repeat this procedure until only a small amount of pressure is released when it is vented.
This is not the correct procedure to use when comparing two separate databases.
proceed[verb] to go forward (and do ..)
When you finish unit 1, please do the questions and then proceed to unit 3. You don't need to do unit 2.
Many people believe that the government will not proceed with its plans to decriminalize cannabis.
Individual investors: proceed with caution.
The government did not proceed with the recommendations regarding the disability program and decided to review changes to the program.
process[noun] a series of steps
A very important way to improve writing is to follow the writing process: plan, compose, revise, edit, publish.
Bringing a new medical drug onto the market is a process that can take several years.
This page traces the process by which a bill becomes a law in the United States.
The committee will investigate the process by which the decision was made.
procure[verb] to get or obtain
For this year's mathematics course, you will need to procure a good graphics calculator.
The internet allows people to procure whatever they want without needing to go to the shops.
In addition to paying for the required tuition and fees, you will need to procure a variety of materials to complete this class.
The father stated he was from the neighbourhood of Bandon, where he had been unable to procure any employment.
Associated: procurement (noun) 3,80
produce[verb] to make or create
The students worked together to produce a poster about the dangers of nuclear power.
The government's plan to kill all infected cows in the region is sure to produce an angry response from the farmers.
The easiest way to produce documents in .pdf is by using the Adobe Acrobat software.
Many spiders can produce seven different kinds of silk.
Associated: product (noun) 130,50
profession[noun] job; occupation
The teaching profession is usually not attractive to those are still pupils themselves. This choice of career is normally made much later.
There is a serious shortage of workers in the profession of computer science. The government is hoping to attract qualified workers from overseas to fill the vacancies.
The profession of social work is based on the values of service, social and economic justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, and integrity and competence in practice.
The teaching profession is under siege from an increasing number of social, economic and political factors, leading to large, unmanageable classrooms.
Associated: professional (adjective) 29,20
profit[noun] money gained
The school is not a business. Its goal is not to make a large profit, but to earn enough money to provide the best possible education.
Manufacturing companies are finding it difficult to make a profit, because of the rise in the price of oil.
The company yesterday said it made a profit of 217.46 million for the six months to June.
Homes were built and sold to families in need at no profit and no interest.
Associated: profit (verb); profitable (adjective) Antonym: loss 48,60
profound[adjective] deep; great; serious
My science teacher has a profound knowledge of nuclear physics.
The government's proposals will have a profound effect on the education of every child in the country.
The optical characteristics of the new hardware will have a profound implication on high-speed networking across the globe.
For some years in the UK personal computers have been used to provide sensory stimulation in schools for children with profound and multiple learning difficulties.
Notebook computers are expected to replace desktop computers in the next decade.
The management wanted to dismiss the incompetent employee but could find no-one better to replace him.
If it doesn't print clearly after several cleanings, you will need to replace the print cartridge.
But please keep in mind that the Internet doesn't replace career counseling.
Associated: replacement (noun) 56,40
reply[noun] an answer
If someone invites you to their party, it's polite to send them a reply and tell them if you can come or not.
When the USA expelled two Russian diplomats, the Russian reply was to do the same.
Seven years is probably long enough to wait for a reply to a letter before concluding that there will never be one.
If your reply is not relevant at all to the subject line, start a new thread with a fresh subject line.
Associated: reply (verb) 48,20
represent[verb] to be; to show or indicate
These tests represent your last chance to demonstrate what you have learned in the course.
It is not easy to represent an abstract idea in picture form so that ESL students can understand it.
Social network analysts use two kinds of tools from mathematics to represent information about patterns of ties among social actors.
In decimal notation we represent a negative number by writing a minus in front of a positive number.
Associated: representation (noun); representative(adjective) Note: A representative (noun, often shortened to rep) is a person who works for a company. Example; A rep came to my house yesterday and tried to sell me a vacuum cleaner. 118,80
request[verb] to ask politely
Some students request to go to the bathroom when in fact all they want to do is escape a boring lesson for a few minutes.
The airport authorities request all passengers to keep their bags in sight at all times.
You will not be able to request a domain name unless you provide the following information.
How do I request that the Libraries purchase a book or other material?
You will need to request a formal leave of absence with USC if you intend to be away from more than 3 days.
Megan Wood said although students were more educated on the issues, many did not vote simply because they forgot to request an application form.
Associated: request (noun) 306,00
require[verb] to need
I require your help, please. I can't do this on my own.
Doctors usually require patients to have some proof of ability to pay for treatment.
Prior to the change, students had the option of taking a track that didn't require language proficiency.
By the time they reach preschool, about 1 in 3 Odham children require eyeglasses for astigmatism.
My research does not require contacting people because I intend to use existing or archived material.
It's a complex problem, and its solutions will require new technology, policy, awareness and education.
Associated: requirement (noun) 185,40
research[noun] study; the finding of information
Internet research has become extremely popular, but it's easy to waste time and find nothing useful.
The government is going to set up a research laboratory to investigate the outbreak of the sickness in farm animals.
The journal publishes scholarly research aimed at describing and explaining consumer behavior.
Turkish law requires foreign scholars to obtain formal permission to carry out research at institutions in Turkey.
Associated: research (verb) 682,00
reserve[verb] to keep
Please reserve me a seat at the back of the school bus.
The government intends to reserve the information for itself. The public will not have access to it until the end of the decade.
Once you've chosen the course or courses you wish to take, you should contact COM so that we can reserve a place for you.
We reserve the right to refuse alcohol service to anyone who cannot provide proper identification.
Associated: reservation (noun) 74,40
resident[noun] a person who lives in a place
Every second resident of Frankfurt is a non-native speaker of German.
The last resident of the flooded village was evacuated by a helicopter.
If the student is determined to be independent of their parents, the student must be a resident of Indiana since at least December 31 of the previous year.
Miller, long a resident of Switzerland, broke with the school of traditional psychoanalysis over the issue.
Associated: reside (verb); residence (noun) 39,60
resign[verb] to give up (one's job)
The teacher was asked to resign after it was discovered that he had lied about his absence from school.
The prime minister has said that he has no plan to resign over the crisis in Iraq.
President Tom Gerety announced today that he will resign on June 30, 2003, after nine years as the head of the college.
Lord Wavell had to resign as he could not bring about a settlement and he was succeeded by Lord Mountbatten.
Associated: resignation (noun) 3,90
resist[verb] to fight against
He continues to resist all our efforts to help him.
If the human body is weak or cold, it is less able to resist infection.
His advice was to resist short-term temptation when investing in stocks.
It's hard to resist the temptation to buy from an unknown company when they're advertising low prices for name brand products.
Associated: resistance (noun) 14,80
resource[noun] a source of information or material
Wikipedia is a wonderful resource for high school students, but the information it contains must be checked for reliability.
The ocean floor is the last great resource waiting to be exploited for its oil and other minerals.
Forests are both an important part of the global ecosystem and an important resource of raw materials for lumber, paper, and fuelwood.
Business Index provides a one-stop resource of information on: small business management, foreign trade opportunities, job hunting strategies.
respect[verb] to think positively about someone; to tolerate or avoid interfering with something
Please respect my possessions and not use them without asking permission.
Most people do not respect politicians who make promises everyone knows cannot be kept.
Learning to value and respect the differences of the people around you is an important part of a liberal arts education.
We will not violate the personal property of co-workers and customers, and will respect their right to privacy.
Most of the school's revenue comes from the school fees paid by the companies who send their employees to work in Germany.
Revenue from income tax is expected to be lower this year than in previous years.
Some farmers, especially those producing corn, hope that biofuels have a bright future, both as a new source of cheap energy and as a new source of revenue.
Lack of sufficient revenue often prohibits sound management activities that are necessary to the company's long-term health and stability.
reverse[verb] to turn back or go back
If you reverse the page, you will see the map I would like you to copy.
The government has stated that it will not reverse its decision to ban smoking in pubs.
We must reverse the trend of a growing incidence of campus hate crimes.
I believe that the DOD (Department of Defense) should reverse this discriminatory policy.
If we are to contemplate actions designed to reverse the pattern of current difficulties in Viet Nam we ought to lay the groundwork.
Shonekan was unable to reverse Nigeria's ever-growing economic problems.
Associated: reverse (noun); reversal (noun) 42,30
review[verb] to check over (and make changes)
Be sure to review your writing before you give it to me.
The government promised to review its policy on drug criminality.
If this request is approved by the IRB, the researcher and his or her clinic staff would be permitted to review the medical records.
It is important to review language that reinforces the dominant culture's attitude to disability.
Associated: review (noun) Note: Another common meaning of review (noun / verb) is written or spoken opinion about a book, film, etc., as in Did you read the review of Madonna's new CD? I thought it was rather harsh. 360,00
revise[verb] to change (in order to improve)
The third stage of the writing process is when you revise your work. This means that you make any necessary changes to its structure or content.
The government has decided to revise it proposals to increase income tax after massive demonstrations on the streets of the capital city.
The committee expects that as NOAA moves forward it will have to revise the plan on a regular basis to incorporate new understanding.
It is often necessary to revise a mathematical model several times in the course of an urban operations research study.
Associated: revision (noun) Note: Another common meaning of revision (for British students) is the work done in preparation for exams, as in Sorry, I can't play tennis today. I haven't finished my revision. 16,90
revive[verb] to bring back (to life)
The school is planning to revive its lunchtime sports program after hearing a request from the student council.
Doctors were unable to revive the man who was pulled out of the icy river.
It is impossible to revive any Yuan play in its original style because the music is lost and its social context has changed.
Perhaps we will have to revive the issue of the 'Child Friendly City'.
Associated: revival (noun) 3,10
revolution[noun] (a time of) great change
The French Revolution is studied in grade 8 history class.
There was a revolution in language teaching about 40 years ago when the spoken language replaced writing and grammar as the main focus of teaching.
The (German) invention of the dynamo brought a revolution in electrical energy leading to the construction of power stations serving cities and towns.
Explain 5 reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain.
Associated: revolt (verb) 28,40
reward[verb] to give something (e.g. a prize) for good work or behaviour
If you work hard all lesson, I will reward you by letting you go to lunch five minutes early.
The government should not reward young unmarried mothers by giving them free housing.
The Program is designed to reward researchers whose ISBM-supported work appears in the academic literature.
A close study of this volume will reward any reader.
The grant is not a sufficient reward for the excellence and hard work of this faculty and staff.
High school students who have completed this difficult novel deserve a reward.
Associated: reward (noun) Note: Another common meaning of reward (noun) is money given for help in solving a crime, as in The police are offering a reward of $10,000 for information in connection with the disappearance of .. . 20,70
rigid[adjective] strict, unbending
We have a rigid policy of no drugs in our school. You will be expelled if you are caught with them in the building
Many people have complained about the rigid security procedures that have been introduced to UK airports.
Rigid plastics are made of several resin types, but in agriculture they are mainly high density polyethylene.
For example, in many manufacturing processes several nominally rigid bodies undergo multiple, concurrent, dynamic frictional contacts.
If you plan for your child to attend the school, you must submit an online request.
Every employee must submit an annual tax declaration to his or her local tax office.
You can submit your work at any time prior to the due date.
He failed to submit proof that he had completed an approved substance- abuse program as required.
Associated: submission (noun) 206,10
subsequent[adjective] next, following
Your first piece of writing was very good, but the subsequent ones have been of much lower quality.
At first it seemed to many like the right idea to invade Iraq. Subsequent events have shown that it was a serious error, however.
The geographer urges upon his students that they first master those principles and then consider the subsequent problems.
Children who are moved more frequently are more likely to have subsequent problems than children in more stable placements.
Associated: subsequently (adverb) 35,40
subsidize[verb] to support financially
A rich parent has donated money to the school to subsidize the building of a new sports block.
The government plans to subsidize farmers who grow crops that can be used to run cars.
The University will subsidize the cost of the premiums for graduate students during the coming academic year.
It was a time when priests were experiencing financial crisis and the Church was unable to subsidize many of their expenses.
Associated: subsidy (noun) Note: This word can also be spelled subsidise . 2,60
He has made substantial progress this trimester.
The government is planning to spend a substantial amount of money on new hospitals next year.
The result will be an immediate and substantial increase in the number of faculty of color who are tenured at this institution.
Previous studies have shown that children have substantial difficulties with mathematical equivalence problems.
Associated: substantially (adverb) 32,70
substitute[noun] a thing or person to take the place of another
My regular mathematics teacher is sick so we have had a substitute for the last 2 weeks.
Scientists are working very hard to find a substitute for oil. They hope that one day cars will not pollute the atmosphere.
Such activity cannot be considered an adequate substitute for excellence in teaching and research.
Food irradiation can be an important tool in the war against illness and death from foodborne diseases. But it is not a substitute for comprehensive food safety programs throughout the food distribution system.
Associated: substitute (verb) 22,80
subtle[adjective] not clear or strong
There is a subtle difference between the words 'uninterested ' and 'disinterested'.
The government needs to use a more subtle approach to persuading people to eat less and keep fit.
Traditional social skills strategies (such as board games about friendships and appropriate classroom behavior) tend to be too subtle for many children.
She was making a subtle distinction between causing something and making something happen.
Associated: subtlety (noun) 9,40
succeed[verb] to do well
If you want to succeed in school you will have to study hard!
So far scientists have been unable to succeed in their efforts to find a cure for cancer
If we are to succeed in creating a true sense of citizenship in our students, we won't do so by offering an all-purpose, first-year global civics course.
You will receive a lengthy, very technical email, which in short, states that your unsubscribe request did not succeed.
Design your syllabus so that it communicates to students what you expect them to learn and also how to succeed in achieving the learning goals for your course.
I have set myself the target of learning all these 1000 academic words by the end of the school year. That's 8 per day!
The government failed to meet its target of reducing child poverty by 20%.
Sufficient progress has been made with regard to drinking water to place within reach the target of halving the proportion of the population without access to safe drinking water between 1990 and 2015.
The proposed system seems an improbable target for the short-term, given that a half century of work with this goal has met only limited success.
Associated: target (verb) Note: The target of someone with a gun or bow and arrow is what she or she is pointing at. Example: The Olympic biathlete missed the target by just 0,5mm. 60,00
Your main task for this lesson is to work together to prepare a presentation on air pollution.
The police chief set up a committee whose task was to investigate the reasons for the shooting of the wrong man.
Without a filter on perceptual input, our brains would have the impossible task of sifting through an overload of information to separate important from unimportant information.
Students receive feedback from the teacher on their performance on the interpretative task before they start on the next one.
technical[adjective] to do with machines or the way things work
My father has a workshop in the garage so I have a lot of technical knowledge.
Some people say that there should be technical schools for students who are not so interested in writing or learning from books.
Some of the key personal resources that you will draw from include your own academic background, teaching style, life experience, and technical experience.
Recent government IT initiatives focus narrowly on a specific technical problem, like enabling mobile data communication or Web-based transactions.
Associated: technology (noun) 116,80
technique[noun] a method of doing something
You should try new technique for learning vocabulary. Your present one does not seem very successful.
Medical science now uses a computer scanning technique to examine the interior of the human body.
Using a new technique to trap and measure single particles with lasers, an international group of researchers have demonstrated that Brownian motion of a single particle behaves differently than Einstein theorized one century ago.
No other technique has been used more often or by more college teachers than the Minute Paper.
This technique provides a quick and extremely simple way to collect written feedback on student learning.
temporary[adjective] for a short or limited time
My stay in Germany will be temporary. I'm am returning to the UK next month.
Many students look for temporary work between leaving school and starting university.
If your condition is temporary and is impacting only attendance, make sure you follow up with your professors and contact the Dean of Students Office.
She began to notice that being overlooked by her supervisor was not a temporary problem.
Associated: temporarily (adverb) Antonym: permanent Note: A temp (= temporary) is someone who has a job for only a short time. 24,80
tend[verb] to often behave in a certain way
Teachers tend to get annoyed if students do not pay attention in class.
The government ministers tend to treat people as children to be protected from all the ills of the world.
Successful people tend to have four underlying beliefs: I choose to succeed. I can succeed. I will succeed. I have succeeded.
Carla Santos, a professor of leisure studies, says our perception of another culture is likely shaped by accounts of travel writers, who tend to perpetuate cultural stereotypes.
Associated: tendency (noun) 60,30
term[noun] a word or expression
What's the meaning of the termhypothesis?
Hypotenuse is a term that you will normally hear only in mathematics class.
Theatre is not the correct term for such a performance, since it is a matter of the virtual as well as the actual.
Hmong elders did not have symptoms before coming to the U.S. and question why diabetes exists in the U.S. There is no term for diabetes in the Hmong language.
Note: Another common meaning of term is period of time, as in The government is now entering its last term of office. 194,20
terminate[verb] to finish or stop
My father's contract in Germany will terminate at the end of the year.
The chairman decided to terminate the meeting when people started shouting at each other.
The University may terminate the Contract at any time by giving thirty (30) days written notice to the Contract.
If you have the amnio test late in pregnancy and are carrying a baby with Downs Syndrome, it will be too late to terminate the pregnancy.
Associated: termination (noun) Antonym: commence Note: A terminal is the last stop of a bus or train, as in Kings Cross is a large terminal in North London. 13,00
territory[noun] land; area (of interest)
The last territory on earth to be explored was Antarctica.
The government is heading into difficult territory with its plans to ban smoking in all public places.
I was headed into new territory not in what I was teaching but in how I was to teach it.
In this section of the course, we cover less familiar territory, namely the equations of relativistic acceleration.
theory[noun] idea or hypothesis
Many a theory that was once believed by everyone later proves to be false - e.g. that the sun goes around the earth.
The government's theory is that the bomb was set off by a recent immigrant.
Since exactly the same language can be used by those who disagree with him, the theory is too general to be of any use.
The theory was that starving the brain of sugar would kill marginally functioning brain cells, but the therapy was soon phased out because it was considered too dangerous.