Academic words: Printable listing - Alphabetical



abandon [verb]
to leave or give up

Associated:   abandonment (noun)
9,00

ability [noun]
ableness to do something; a skill for doing something well

Associated:   to be able to (verb); able (adjective)
Antonym: inability

Note:   A disability is (permanent) physical inability. People who cannot see have a disability. A near synonym of ability is capability .
126,20

abnormal [adjective]
not normal, unusual

Associated:   abnormality (noun)
Antonym: normal

7,90

absent [adjective]
being not there; missing

Associated:   absence (noun)
Antonym: present

16,40

absolutely [adverb]
completely; 100%

Associated:   absolute (adjective)
15,40

absorb [verb]
to take in; to take up

Associated:   absorption (noun)
Note:   Note how the b of the verb changes to a p in the noun.
10,20

abstract [adjective]
not specific or concrete

Associated:   abstraction (noun)
Note:   An abstract painting is one without an obvious subject. Another common meaning of abstract (noun) is a short summary of a written article (usually an academic article).
84,20

abundant [adjective]
existing in large quantities

Associated:   abundance (noun)
Antonym: scarce

8,20

abuse [verb]
to treat someone or something badly

Associated:   abuse (noun)
Note:   Abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs is called substance abuse
57,90

accelerate [verb]
to get or make faster

Associated:   acceleration (noun)
Antonym: decelerate

10,30

accept [verb]
to agree (to have)

Associated:   acceptance (noun)
Antonym: reject

Note:   Acceptable means ok, permissible . Example: Your behaviour is not acceptable .
85,20

access [noun]
the right to enter or use

Associated:   accessible (adjective); access (verb)
258,00

accompany [verb]
to go with someone or something; to exist together

Associated:   accompaniment (noun)
19,30

accomplish [verb]
to do or achieve

Associated:   accomplishment (noun)
37,80

accordingly [adverb]
appropriate to; in compliance with

16,80

account [noun]
a written or spoken report of a happening

Note:   Another common meaning of account is in connection with money and business , as in I have an account with the Deutsche Bank. The preposition on account of means because of , as in She was late tto school on account of the heavy traffic.
157,00

accumulate [verb]
to grow; to gather together

Associated:   accumulation (noun)
11,20

accurate [adjective]
exact, containing no mistakes

Associated:   accurately (adverb); accuracy (noun)
Antonym: inaccurate

40,80

accuse [verb]
to blame

Associated:   accusation (noun)
2,30

achieve [verb]
to gain or get something (often academic success)

Associated:   achievement (noun)
105,00

acknowledge [verb]
to agree with; admit to; give credit to

Associated:   acknowledgement (noun)
28,80

acquire [verb]
to get or obtain

Associated:   acquisition (noun)
38,10

actual [adjective]
real

Associated:   actually (adverb)
59,70

adapt [verb]
to change (often in response to a changed situation)

Associated:   adaptation (noun)
25,20

add [verb]
to include; to give or say extra

Associated:   addition (noun); additional (adjective)
Antonym: subtract

269,10

address [verb]
to give attention to (an issue)

Note:   Another common meaning of address is, of course, house number, street, etc. , as in My address
402,00

adequate [adjective]
(good) enough; ok

Associated:   adequately (adverb); adequacy (adverb)
Antonym: inadequate

28,20

adhere [verb]
to keep to; to follow

Associated:   adherence (noun)
16,00

adjacent [adjective]
next to

Note:   In sentences 2 and 4 below adjacent is being used as an adjective; in sentences 1 and 3 it is used as a preposition and must be followed by the word to.
17,80

adjust [verb]
to change (often in order to make something work properly)

Associated:   adjustment (noun)
33,90

administration [noun]
the people responsible for running an organization such as the government or a school

Associated:   administer (verb); administrator (noun)
228,00

admit [verb]
to allow to enter

Associated:   admittance (noun); admission (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of admit is to accept guilt or responsibility , as in She admitted plagiarzing her report.
24,10

adopt [verb]
to take in; to start

Associated:   adoption (noun)
Note:   Another common use of adopt is in connection with a baby or child , as in They cannot have children of their own so they have decided to adopt a Romanian orphan.
33,90

advance [verb]
to go or move forward; to get better

Associated:   advance (noun); advanced (adjective)
Antonym: retreat

Note:   A common use of advance is in the expression in advance which means ahead of time. For example: I booked my plan ticket well in advance.
113,70

advantage [noun]
benefit

Associated:   advantageous (adjective)
Antonym: disadvantage

73,40

advise [verb]
to say what someone should do; to give advice

Associated:   advice (noun); adviser (noun)
Note:   Adviser can also be spelled advisor
24,40

advocate [verb]
to speak or write on behalf of someone or something

Associated:   advocacy (noun); advocate (noun)
Note:   A lawyer who defends someone in court is sometimes called an advocate (= barrister in British courts).
28,20

affair [noun]
an event or series of events

Note:   Another meaning of affair is sexual relationship with someone who is not your spouse, as in He's having an affair with his secretary.
6,70

affect [verb]
to have an influence on

Associated:   effect (noun)
113,70

afford [verb]
to be able to pay for something

Note:   Afford can have a more general meaning , as in There is only one month until the exam. You cannot afford to take it easy.
27,50

against [preposition]
opposed to; not for or in favour

Associated:  
Antonym: for, in favour of

74,20

agent [noun]
a person who is paid to do a job for someone

Associated:   agency (noun)
42,60

aid [noun]
help (often financial help)

Associated:   aid (verb)
196,60

aim [noun]
goal or intention

Associated:   aim (verb)
Note:   Another common meaning of aim is to point a gun etc. at a target , as in Wilhem Tell aimed at the apple of his son's head.
31,40

albeit [conjuntion]
although, but

3,70

align [verb]
to bring into line with; to make similar

Associated:   alignment (noun)
14,60

allege [verb]
to claim or state

Associated:   allegation (noun)
1,90

allocate [verb]
to give to (to promise to give)

Associated:   allocation (noun)
12,20

alter [verb]
to change

Associated:   alteration (noun)
32,70

alternative [noun]
other possibility

Associated:   alternative (adjective); alternatively (adverb)
97,00

ambiguous [adjective]
not clear; open to more than one interpretation

Associated:   ambiguity (noun)
Antonym: unambiguous

6,30

ambitious [adjective]
having high goals (especially in a career; challenging

Associated:   ambition (noun)
Antonym: unambitious

6,70

amend [verb]
to change (usually to improve something)

Associated:   amendment (noun)
8,60

among [preposition]
in, between

Note:   This word is sometimes spelled amongst .
99,40

amount [noun]
how much there is of something

Associated:   amount (verb)
123,00

analyze [verb]
to look at something in detail in order to understand it

Associated:   analysis (noun)
Note:   Analyze is the typical American English spelling. In British English analyse is more likely.
74,40

ancient [adjective]
very old

Associated:  
Antonym: modern

26,60

annotate [verb]
to make notes on a piece of writing

Associated:   annotation (noun)
3,10

announce [verb]
to state (often in an official way)

Associated:   announcement (noun); announcer (noun)
28,10

annual [adjective]
yearly

Associated:   annually (adverb)
138,20

anomaly [noun]
an unexpected happening or piece of data

Associated:   anomalous (adjective)
4,10

anonymous [adjective]
having no name or known author

Associated:   anonymity (noun)
15,60

anticipate [verb]
to expect

Associated:   anticipation (noun)
20,00

apart [adjective]
not together, separate

Associated:  
Antonym: together

Note:   Another common meaning of apart is in the expression apart from meaning except for, as in Everyone was there apart from me!
22,20

apparatus [noun]
equipment; things you need to do a job

9,50

apparent [adjective]
clear; obvious

Note:   Apparently means it seems, it appears; it is said, as in Apparently she has left her husband.
23,20

appeal [verb]
to complain against an official judgment; to make a strong request

Associated:   appeal (noun)
Note:   If something appeals to you you like it or like the idea of it. Example: Lying for hours in the sun does not really appeal to me.
44,40

appear [verb]
to come, be seen

Associated:   appearance (noun)
Antonym: disappear, vanish

Note:   Another common meaning of appear is to seem, as in It appears that he has been lying. or It doesn't appear that he's coming. (Someone's appearance is the way they look.)
148,50

append [verb]
to add to the end (of a piece of writing)

Associated:   appendix (noun)
5,20

apply [verb]
to be relevant (to)

Associated:   application (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of apply is to make a formal request for something ( especially jobs or college admission ), as in I have applied to study physics at Harvard.
354,00

appoint [verb]
to give a job to someone

Associated:   appointment (noun)
Antonym: dismiss

Note:   Another common meaning of appointment is an arranged time to see someone, as in I have an appointment to see the doctor at 9:30.
10,80

appreciate [verb]
to understand (the value of someone or something)

Associated:   appreciation (noun); appreciative(adjective)
39,90

approach [verb]
to near; to get closer

Associated:   approach (noun)
Note:   A common meaning of the noun approach is a way of looking at or doing something, as in I don't like his approach to teaching.
216,00

appropriate [adjective]
right (for the occasion; suitable

Associated:   appropriately (adverb)
Antonym: inappropriate

122,40

approve [verb]
to agree to

Associated:   approval (noun)
Antonym: disapprove

25,60

approximately [adverb]
about; not exactly

Associated:   approximate (adjective); approximation (noun)
Antonym: exactly

66,90

arbitrary [adjective]
not planned or thought-out; not considering the wishes of others

Associated:   arbitrarily (adverb)
16,40

area [noun]
field, sphere

Note:   Another common meaning of area is to refer to the physical space taken up by a large object, as in A huge area of the rainforest has been cleared.
288,00

argument [noun]
justification or reason (for an idea)

Associated:   argue (verb)
Note:   Another common meaning of argument is word fight, as in I had a huge argument with my boss yesterday.
45,00

arise [verb]
to happen

45,60

arrange [verb]
to plan to happen; to group together

Associated:   arrangement (noun)
Note:   You make an arrangement when you agree with a friend when and where to meet, etc.
31,80

artificial [adjective]
not real or natural

Associated:   artificially (adverb)
Antonym: real

17,80

aspect [noun]
feature, part of

41,80

assemble [verb]
to get, put or bring together

Associated:   assembly (noun)
11,30

assent [noun]
agreement

Associated:   assent (verb)
Antonym: dissent

1,70

assert [verb]
to claim, to say strongly

Associated:   assertion (noun)
12,10

assess [verb]
to judge or test

Associated:   assessment (noun)
69,00

asset [noun]
advantage

Note:   Another common meaning of asset is the things that belong to you, as in If you are so short of money, you should sell some of your assets.
19,70

assignment [noun]
a task; the giving of a task

Associated:   assign (verb)
65,40

assimilate [verb]
to take in

Associated:   assimilation (noun)
3,00

assist [verb]
to help

Associated:   assistance (noun)
118,20

associate [verb]
to link to; to make a connection to

Associated:   association (noun); associate(noun)
Note:   An associate is someone you know (especially at work).
210,90

assume [verb]
to believe to be true; to presume or predict

Associated:   assumption (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of assume is to take on, as in I assume responsibility for what happened.
91,80

assure [verb]
to make sure; to say that something will certainly happen

Associated:   assurance (noun)
26,10

atmosphere [noun]
mood among people or groups

Note:   Another common meaning of atmosphere is the layer of air above the earth, as in The atmosphere around the Olympic stadium was very polluted.
30,40

attach [verb]
to put together with

Associated:   attachment (noun)
Antonym: detach

29,60

attack [noun]
to criticize; to attempt to harm or damage

Associated:   attack (verb)
Antonym: defence

33,00

attain [verb]
to get, achieve

Associated:   attainment (noun)
16,70

attempt [verb]
to try

Associated:   attempt (noun)
93,00

attend [verb]
to go to, to be present at

Associated:   attendance (noun)
135,60

attention [noun]
focus

Associated:   attend (verb)
103,20

attitude [noun]
what someone thinks about something (and how their behaviour is influenced by their thinking)

22,80

attract [verb]
to be interesting; to cause to like

Associated:   attraction (noun)
Antonym: repel

Note:   Attract is what two magnets do when the negative pole of one approaches the positive pole of the other.
27,70

attribute [noun]
characteristic; property

Note:   As a noun attribute is stressed on the first syllable. The word also exists as a verb (stressed on the second syllable) and means to say who or what you think is the cause of something, as in I attribute his poor behaviour to current problems at home.
15,60

authentic [adjective]
real, genuine; not made-up or artificial

Associated:   authenticity (noun)
Antonym: inauthentic

7,10

authority [noun]
control (right to control)

Associated:   authorize (verb)
Note:   The expression the authorities is used to refer to people in power such as the police, the government, etc.. Example: It's time the the authorities did something about drinking on the streets.
54,20

automatic [adjective]
happening by itself; happening naturally or usually

Associated:   automatically (adverb)
23,80

available [adjective]
can be had (bought or obtained)

Associated:   availability (noun)
Antonym: unavailable

306,00

average [adjective]
ordinary, typical

Associated:   average (noun)
90,90

averse [adjective]
against

Associated:   aversion (noun)
Note:   Do not confuse averse with adverse (noun: adversity) which means negative. Example; The high cost of oil is sure to have an adverse effect on profits.
1,20

avoid [verb]
to not do something or go somewhere

Associated:   avoidance (noun)
108,60

aware [adjective]
knowing

Associated:   awareness (noun)
42,30

background [noun]
family experiences; circumstances

Associated:   journey (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of background is associated with what you can see behind or at the back of something. Example: It is not easy to read webpages with green writing on a purple background.
111,60

balance [noun]
equalness

Associated:   balance (verb)
Antonym: imbalance

Note:   A balance is an object used for weighing things, as in We used the balance to determine the weight of the rock.
59,60

ban [verb]
to prohibit or forbid

Associated:   ban (noun)
Antonym: permit

13,60

barely [adverb]
not very much; hardly

6,70

base [verb]
to use as a way of doing or deciding something

Associated:   basis (noun)
Note:   A common meaning of base (used as a noun) is the foot or bottom of something, as in We had our picture taken at the base of the pyramid.
141,00

basic [adjective]
first or easy

128,20

battle [noun]
fight, part of a war

Associated:   battle (verb)
25,80

behalf [noun]
as a representative of; for the benefit of

Note:   Behalf must be preceded by the word on, as in on her behalf or on behalf of the teachers
28,20

behave [verb]
to act or do things in a certain way

Associated:   behaviour (noun)
16,60

belief [noun]
what you think; what you believe in

Associated:   believe (verb)
28,00

belong [verb]
to be part of something or owned by someone

Associated:   belonging (noun)
27,20

beneath [preposition]
below

Associated:  
Antonym: above

6,20

benefit [noun]
advantage

Associated:   benefit (verb)
84,00

besides [preposition]
in addition to; as well as

Note:   Do not confuse this word with beside which means next to , as in I live beside the school.
12,00

beyond [preposition]
further than: past

Note:   Sometimes beyond functions as an adverb, as in The spaceship went as far as Mars and beyond.
58,50

bias [noun]
favouring one more than another, prejudice

Associated:   bias (verb); biased(adjective)
22,60

blame [verb]
to accuse

Associated:   blame (noun)
14,30

block [verb]
to not allow; to stop or prevent

Associated:   block (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of block as a noun is a large piece or collection of , as in a block of wood or .. a block of houses
81,60

bold [adjective]
brave

Associated:   boldly (adverb); boldness (noun)
Antonym: cautious

Note:   When you make typed writing bold you make it darker.
12,50

bond [noun]
link; tie

Associated:   bond (verb)
25,60

boundary [noun]
limit, extent

26,40

brief [adjective]
short

Associated:   briefly (adverb); brevity (noun)
Antonym: lengthy

60,40

broad [adjective]
wide, extensive

Associated:   broadly (adverb); breadth (noun)
Antonym: narrow

55,20

broadcast [verb]
to tell or transmit (often by means of a television programme)

Associated:   broadcast (noun)
40,50

bulk [noun]
majority; largest part

19,00

cancel [verb]
to cut or stop from happening

Associated:   cancellation (noun)
19,70

capable [adjective]
able

Associated:   capability (noun); capably (adverb)
Antonym: incapable

27,40

career [noun]
a long-term job

222,00

case [conjuntion]
.. for the event that, because maybe .. will

Note:   With this meaning case must be preceded by in (in case) . The noun case has several meanings. (Use your dictionary to look them up!)
118,00

category [noun]
group of similar items

Associated:   categorize (verb)
83,60

cause [noun]
the reason why something happens

Associated:   cause (verb)
100,80

cautious [adjective]
careful

Associated:   caution (noun); cautiously (adverb)
Antonym: bold, incautious

3,50

cease [verb]
to stop

Associated:   cessation (noun)
Note:   A ceasefire is an agreement to stop fighting
10,40

certain [adjective]
sure

Associated:   certainty (noun); certainly (adverb)
Antonym: uncertain

Note:   Another very common use of certain can be seen in the following examples, where it has the broad meaning of some. Examples: There are certain problems with your writing. Certain people are unhappy with the plans.
95,60

challenge [noun]
difficult situation; problem

Associated:   challenge (verb); challenging (adjective)
74,00

characteristic [adjective]
typical

Associated:   characteristic (noun)
Antonym: uncharacteristic

19,80

chief [adjective]
most important

Associated:   chiefly (adverb)
Note:   Your chief is the person you work for. Much more usual, however, is to refer to him or her as your boss
45,00

choice [noun]
decision, selection

Associated:   choose (verb)
101,00

circulate [verb]
to move from one place or person to another (often in a circle)

Associated:   circulation (noun)
5,10

circumstances [noun]
situation

Note:   This word is possible in the singular (Google: 13 million hits) but much more common in the plural (90 million hits).
50,20

citizen [noun]
person (member of a country)

Associated:   citizenship (noun)
26,60

claim [verb]
to state to be true

Associated:   claim (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of claim is to ask for or take something (as a right) , as in Travellers claim their baggage at the baggage claim carousel.
65,40

clarify [verb]
to make something clear, explain

Associated:   clarification (noun); clarity (noun)
22,30

classic [adjective]
very good, the best or most used

27,20

classify [verb]
to put into a category or class

Associated:   classification (noun)
13,00

code [noun]
a set of rules

Note:   Computer code is the text written in a computer programming language.
180,20

coincidence [noun]
an uncommon happening of two things

Associated:   coincide (verb); coincidently (adverb)
3,80

collaborate [verb]
to work together

Associated:   collaboration (noun)
22,30

collapse [verb]
to fall down completely and heavily; to fail

Associated:   collapse (noun)
21,40

combine [verb]
to put or go together

Associated:   combination (noun)
42,60

command [noun]
control

Associated:   command (verb)
Note:   Another common meaning of command is order, as in She gave the command to advance on the enemy.
38,80

commence [verb]
to start

Associated:   commencement (noun)
5,70

comment [noun]
a short written or spoken statement or opinion

Associated:   comment (verb)
96,60

commercial [adjective]
to do with business

Associated:   commerce (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of commercial is television advertisement, as in I saw a funny commercial on TV last night.
56,60

commit [verb]
to do (often an offense)

Note:   Another common meaning of commit is to make a commitment to, as in Mary was not ready to marry and commit herself to John for the rest of her life.
25,70

committee [noun]
a group of people meeting to discuss an issue

154,00

commodity [noun]
a product; something you can buy

9,90

common [adjective]
often seen or happening

Associated:   commonly (adverb); commonality (adverb)
Antonym: uncommon

Note:   Another meaning of common is shared, as in We soon found that we have common interests. or We soon found that we have a lot in common.
131,60

communicate [verb]
to convey information

Associated:   communication (noun)
60,30

community [noun]
a group of people

Associated:   communal (adjective)
424,00

comparison [noun]
a statement of how two things are similar or different

Associated:   compare (verb)
69,20

compatible [adjective]
able to work with someone or something else

Associated:   compatibility (noun)
Antonym: incompatible

15,40

compel [verb]
to force or make happen

Associated:   compulsion (noun)
4,10

compensation [noun]
money (or some other reward) given to someone who has suffered a loss or injustice

Associated:   compensate (verb)
30,00

compete [verb]
to try and win against someone or something

Associated:   competition (noun)
37,20

competent [adjective]
good at something (often a job)

Associated:   competence (noun); competently (adverb)
Antonym: incompetent

9,30

compile [verb]
to put together (often in a list

Associated:   compilation (noun)
17,40

complete [adjective]
full or finished

Associated:   completion (noun)
Antonym: incomplete

Note:   The adverb completely means totally, as in The instructions were not completely clear to me.
183,00

complex [adjective]
difficult, complicated

Associated:   complexity (noun)
Antonym: simple

Note:   Another common meaning of complex as a noun is personality problem, as in She has a complex about people watching her when she eats.
94,60

complicate [verb]
to make things more complex or difficult

Associated:   complication (noun); complicated (adjective)
Antonym: simplify

4,60

comply [verb]
to do what someone asks or orders

Associated:   compliance (noun)
27,30

component [noun]
part of; an element of

71,40

comprehend [verb]
to understand

Associated:   comprehension (noun)
8,20

comprehensive [adjective]
full, complete

Associated:   comprehensively (adverb)
Note:   A comprehensive school in the UK is one which all students attend regardless of their ability.
65,80

comprise [verb]
to be made up of; to include

17,50

compulsory [adjective]
required, must be done

Associated:   compulsion (noun)
Antonym: voluntary

2,50

conceal [verb]
to hide

Associated:   concealment (noun)
Antonym: reveal

4,00

concept [noun]
idea; understanding

Associated:   conceive (verb)
68,00

concern [noun]
worry, fear

Associated:   concern (verb); concerned (adjective)
Note:   A common expression is as far as .. concerned, as in As far as I am concerned you can go now.
58,20

concise [adjective]
short, not detailed

Associated:   concisely (adverb); conciseness (noun)
Antonym: verbose

8,40

conclude [verb]
to finish; to make a judgment

Associated:   conclusion (noun)
39,90

condemn [verb]
to express strong disapproval

Associated:   condemnation (noun)
3,30

condition [noun]
state

Note:   Another important use of the word condition is to express what must happen before something else can be done. Examples: I'll lend you my iPod on condition that you return it tomorrow. - or - A condition of releasing you from prison is that you must report to the police once a week.
69,80

conduct [verb]
to do or perform; to behave

Associated:   conduct (noun)
Note:   The noun conduct is most often used as a synonym for behaviour . [As a noun conduct is stressed on the first syllable, as a verb it is stressed on the second.]
116,40

confident [adjective]
sure that something will happen

Associated:   confidence (noun); confidently (adverb)
Note:   Self-confidence is feeling good about yourself.
10,20

confine [verb]
to limit

3,00

confirm [verb]
to agree that something is correct

Associated:   confirmation (noun)
33,00

conflict [noun]
problem, struggle or battle

Associated:   conflict (verb); conflicting (adjective)
52,40

conform [verb]
to do what is required

Associated:   conformity (noun)
15,00

confront [verb]
to deal with someone or something (often a problem or unpleasant situation)

Associated:   confrontation (noun)
11,90

connect [verb]
to bring or put together

Associated:   connection (noun)
Antonym: disconnect

74,10

conscious [adjective]
aware, knowing

Associated:   consciously (adverb); consciousness (noun)
Antonym: unconscious

Note:   When someone is knocked out this means that they are unconscious. You are unconscious when you are asleep.
9,90

consent [verb]
to agree

Associated:   consent (noun)
41,40

consequence [noun]
result

Associated:   consequent (adjective); consequently (adverb)
22,60

conserve [verb]
to preserve; to not use

Associated:   conservation (noun)
7,20

consider [verb]
to think

Associated:   consideration (noun)
187,80

considerable [adjective]
very big; very much

Associated:   considerably (adverb)
23,70

consist [verb]
to have in it; to have as part of it

45,90

consistent [adjective]
regular or predictable; remaining the same

Associated:   consistency (noun)
Antonym: inconsistent

49,00

constant [adjective]
not changing; long-lasting

Associated:   constantly (adverb)
Antonym: intermittent

43,00

constitute [verb]
to be; to make up

Associated:   constitution (noun)
Note:   A common meaning of constitution is formal regulations of a country. The American Constitution was adopted in 1787.
38,10

constraint [noun]
to hold back; to prevent

Associated:   constrain (verb)
15,70

construct [verb]
to make

Associated:   construction (noun)
53,40

consult [verb]
to get the advice of someone ( often an expert)

Associated:   consultation (noun)
57,90

consume [verb]
to use, or use up

Associated:   consumption (noun); consumer (noun)
12,80

contact [verb]
to get in touch (e.g. by phone or email)

Associated:   contact (noun)
1284,00

contain [verb]
to have in it; to hold inside

Associated:   content (noun)
103,50

contemplate [verb]
to think about; to consider

Associated:   contemplation (noun)
3,90

contemporary [adjective]
of this time, happening now

Associated:   contemporary (noun)
50,00

context [noun]
the place or situation in which something is found

95,60

continue [verb]
to carry on, not stop

Associated:   continuation (noun); continual (adjective); continually (adverb); continuous (adjective)
200,10

contract [noun]
a written agreement, binding in law

Note:   The verb contract means to get smaller, as in Metals expand when it is hot and contract when it is cold.
55,80

contradict [verb]
to say or show that what someone has said is wrong

Associated:   contradiction (noun)
4,70

contrary [noun]
opposite

Associated:   contrary (adjective)
Note:   A useful expression is on the contrary as in I thought you didn't like German food. - On the contrary. I think it's delicious.
20,20

contrast [noun]
difference

Associated:   contrast (verb)
Note:   A common academic essay title is Compare and contrast .. , as in Compare and contrast the origins of the First and Second World Wars.
52,00

contribute [verb]
to give (for example: money, help or ideas); to play a part in

Associated:   contribution (noun)
94,80

control [verb]
to have and exercise power over something or someone

Associated:   control (noun)
312,00

controversy [noun]
an issue on which their are strong and conflicting opinions

Associated:   controversial (adjective)
14,20

convenient [adjective]
easy, not causing problems

Associated:   convenience (noun); conveniently (adverb)
Antonym: inconvenient

Note:   In Britain a public convenience is public toilet .
8,50

conversely [adverb]
opposite to what was just said; on the other hand

Associated:   converse (adjective)
7,20

convert [verb]
to change from one thing to another

Associated:   conversion (noun)
31,80

convey [verb]
to pass on to another person (often by speaking)

18,30

convince [verb]
to (try and) get someone to believe something

Associated:   conviction (noun); convincing (adjective)
Note:   A conviction is a strong belief , as in It is my conviction that Bush knew Hussaein did not have chemical weapons.
12,90

cooperate [verb]
to work (well) with another person

Associated:   cooperation (noun)
11,50

coordinate [verb]
to bring things or people together so that they work well

Associated:   coordination (noun)
45,90

correlate [verb]
to have a close connection

Associated:   correlation (noun)
5,00

correspond [verb]
to be related to

Associated:   correspondence (noun)
29,80

counsel [noun]
advice; advisor

Associated:   counsel (verb); counselor (noun)
21,80

course [noun]
a subject or period of study

410,00

cover [verb]
to do; to complete

Associated:   coverage (noun)
158,40

create [verb]
to make; to use your imagination to make something new

Associated:   creation (noun); creativity (noun); creative (adjective)
257,10

credible [adjective]
believable

Associated:  
Antonym: incredible

Note:   incredibly means very, very, as in She is incredibly intelligent.
4,50

credit [noun]
.. gained on completing a course of study; praise

Associated:   credit (verb)
Note:   Another common meaning of credit is money loaned (by a bank) , as in We are buying our house on credit.
159,20

crisis [noun]
very dangerous situation, catastrophe

Associated:   critical (adjective)
35,80

criterion [noun]
a way to judge the value or importance of something

Note:   The plural of criterion is criteria.
14,50

criticize [verb]
to express disapproval; to say what you don't like or think is good about something or someone

Associated:   criticism (noun)
Note:   Criticize can also be spelled criticise.
5,30

crucial [adjective]
extremely important

Associated:   crucially (adverb)
23,10

culminate [verb]
to end

Associated:   culmination (noun)
2,90

current [adjective]
happening now

Associated:   currently (adverb)
340,50

custom [noun]
a habit (often particular to a culture)

Associated:   customary (adjective); accustomed (adjective)
27,00

cycle [noun]
a complete series of events or processes

Associated:   cyclical (adjective)
Note:   To recycle something is to use it again, as in In Germany most household products such as bottles or yoghurt pots can be recycled.
49,20

damage [verb]
to spoil or break

Associated:   damage (noun)
59,40

deal [noun]
agreement

Associated:   deal (verb)
Note:   The phrasal verb to deal with means to address an issue or difficulty, as in I've never had this problem before. I don't know how to deal with it.
76,00

debate [noun]
formal discussion

Associated:   debate (verb)
40,00

debt [noun]
something owed to another person (often money)

Note:   The b in debt is silent. The word is pronounced det.
12,60

decade [noun]
a period of ten years

30,80

decision [noun]
intention to do something, choice

Associated:   decide (verb)
114,20

declare [verb]
to state

Associated:   declaration (noun)
8,70

decline [verb]
to go down or get worse

Associated:   decline (noun)
Note:   Another meaning of decline is to refuse or reject , as in She declined the invitation to make a presentation to the whole faculty.
39,00

decrease [verb]
to get smaller, to go down

Associated:   decrease (noun)
Antonym: increase

Note:   In the noun decrease the first syllable is stressed. In the verb decrease the second syllable is stressed.
55,50

dedicate [verb]
to devote (time and attention)

Associated:   dedication (noun)
5,00

deduce [verb]
to come to a conclusion about someone or something

Associated:   deduction (noun)
4,40

deed [noun]
an action

4,80

defeat [noun]
a loss (often in a battle or sports event)

Associated:   defeat (verb)
Antonym: victory

9,80

defect [noun]
problem; mistake

Associated:   defective (adjective)
6,80

defend [verb]
to give reasons for

Associated:   defence (noun)
Antonym: attack

Note:   Defence is spelled defense in American English (and stressed on the first syllable).
21,30

deficient [adjective]
poor, lacking in quantity or quality

Associated:   deficiency (noun)
3,90

define [verb]
to state what something is or means

Associated:   definition (noun)
79,50

definitely [adverb]
certainly; without doubt

Associated:   definite (adjective)
13,30

degenerate [verb]
to get worse

Associated:   degeneration (noun)
4,70

degree [noun]
amount

Note:   Another common meaning of degree is an educational award, as in I am studying for a degree in linguistics.
250,00

delay [noun]
lateness

Associated:   delay (verb)
28,40

deliberate [adjective]
intentional, not by accident

Associated:   deliberately (adverb)
Antonym: accidental

Note:   To deliberate is to think long and hard (before doing something).
5,10

deliver [verb]
to provide (often by bringing to people)

Associated:   delivery (noun)
47,10

demand [noun]
a need or desire for

Associated:   demand (verb)
Note:   A common meaning of the verb to demand is to insist, as in I demand to see the headmaster!
55,60

demonstrate [verb]
to show

Associated:   demonstration (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of demonstration is street gathering of people protesting about something, as in There was a large demonstration outside Parliament yesterday. A demonstrator is someone who takes part in a street demonstration.
92,70

denote [verb]
to mean; to be a sign of

Associated:   denotation (verb)
22,30

dense [adjective]
thick; full; detailed

Associated:   density (noun)
9,60

deny [verb]
to refuse ( responsibility for doing or saying something); to say that something is not correct

Associated:   denial (noun)
17,80

depart [verb]
to leave; to be different from

Associated:   departure (noun)
Antonym: arrive

13,80

depend [verb]
be influenced (by)

Associated:   dependence (noun)
55,50

deprive [verb]
to take away (the opportunity)

Associated:   deprivation (noun)
3,20

derive [verb]
to come from or get from

Associated:   derivation (noun)
25,90

descend [verb]
to go down

Associated:   descent (noun)
Antonym: ascend

3,30

description [noun]
an account of what something is like or looks like

Associated:   describe (verb)
364,00

deserve [verb]
to have the right to something

Associated:   deserving (adjective)
13,70

design [noun]
planning (drawing)

Associated:   design (verb)
244,00

desire [noun]
a want or wish for something

Associated:   desire (verb)
41,40

despite [preposition]
although

Note:   A synonym for despite is in spite of, as in There were many demonstrators on the streets in spite of the freezing rain.
28,90

destroy [verb]
to break or damage completely

Associated:   destruction (noun)
20,30

detail [noun]
a small piece of information

Associated:   detailed (adjective)
Note:  
84,80

detect [verb]
to see, find or notice

Associated:   detection (noun); detective (noun)
Note:   Every house needs a smoke detector in case of fire.
35,40

deteriorate [verb]
to get worse

Associated:   deterioration (noun)
Antonym: improve

2,40

determine [verb]
to find out; to establish or identify; state

Note:   If you are determined to do something, you will do everything to make sure you do it. Example: I am determined to learn all these words by the end of the year.
190,50

detriment [noun]
disadvantage

Associated:   detrimental (adjective)
Note:   The most common use of this word is in the expression to the detriment of ..
1,90

develop [verb]
to grow or improve

Associated:   development (noun)
238,80

deviate [verb]
to be different

Associated:   deviation (noun)
4,60

device [noun]
object; method

Associated:   devise (verb)
39,20

devise [verb]
to create or think up

Associated:   device (noun)
8,40

devote [verb]
to give (time) to

Associated:   devotion (noun); devoted (adjective)
11,10

diagnosis [noun]
assessment of a situation (particularly of a problem)

Associated:   diagnose (verb)
25,40

diagram [noun]
a type of picture or chart

20,60

dictate [verb]
to tell someone what to do

Associated:   dictator (noun); dictation (noun)
Note:   When a boss dictates to her secretary, the secretary writes down what the boss says (e.g. a letter).
7,60

differentiate [verb]
to make different; to see the difference

Associated:   differentiation (noun)
13,10

dimension [noun]
importance; amount

Note:   Another common meaning of dimension is measurement . So a piece of paper is a two-dimensional object and a box is a three-dimensional (3D) object.
11,50

diminish [verb]
to get smaller or less important

Associated:   diminution (noun)
8,10

directions [noun]
instructions

Note:   When directions is in the plural, it has the meaning of instructions . In the singular it has to do with north, south etc.
78,40

disaster [noun]
a huge problem or failure

Associated:   disastrous (adjective)
18,80

discern [verb]
to see; to perceive

6,60

discover [verb]
to find out; to find something for the first time (esp. land or scientific knowledge)

Associated:   discovery (noun)
63,90

discrete [adjective]
separate

18,00

discuss [verb]
to talk about

Associated:   discussion (noun)
169,20

dismiss [verb]
to reject, to treat as unimportant

Associated:   dismissal (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of dismiss is to fire an employee, as in The company was losing money and had to dismiss 20% of its workforce..
7,60

disperse [verb]
to spread out; to move apart

Associated:   dispersal (noun)
3,10

displace [verb]
to push out or take the place of something or someone

Associated:   displacement (noun); displaced (adjective)
3,50

display [noun]
a show, demonstration, illustration

Associated:   display (verb)
94,20

dispose [verb]
to get rid of

Associated:   disposal (noun)
Note:   Dispose does not take a direct object. It must be dispose of
7,00

dispute [noun]
argument; conflict

Associated:   dispute (verb)
14,60

disrupt [verb]
to interrupt an event; to damage

Associated:   disruption (noun); disruptive (adjective)
7,60

distance [noun]
how far it is from one place to another

Associated:   distant (adjective)
109,20

distinct [adjective]
clear and strong

Associated:   distinctly (adverb)
30,00

distinguish [verb]
to make clear the differences between two things

Associated:   distinction (noun)
37,50

distort [verb]
to change or affect something (negatively)

Associated:   distortion (noun)
3,70

distribute [verb]
to give out

Associated:   distribution (noun)
28,80

district [noun]
region of a city

71,40

disturb [verb]
to interrupt, stop from working

Associated:   disturbance (noun)
1,20

diverge [verb]
to move apart; to be different from

Associated:   divergence (noun)
3,50

diverse [adjective]
many and different

Associated:   diversity (noun)
52,50

domain [noun]
area (of interest)

50,60

domestic [adjective]
home

Associated:   domesticity (noun)
30,60

dominate [verb]
to be much better, to play the most important part

Associated:   domination (noun); dominant (adjective)
13,90

donate [verb]
to give (usually money)

Associated:   donation (noun)
46,80

doubt [noun]
a feeling of uncertainty (whether something is true)

Associated:   doubt (verb)
27,60

drain [verb]
to take away; to get rid of

Associated:   drain (noun)
Note:   A drain on the street is the metal object where the rain water disappears.
10,20

dramatically [adverb]
very strongly, significantly

Associated:   dramatic (adjective)
14,20

drastic [adjective]
severe; great

Associated:   drastically (adverb)
2,90

drawback [noun]
disadvantage, problem

Associated:  
Antonym: benefit

2,90

due [preposition]
as a result of, because of

Note:   When due is used as a preposition in this way, it must be followed by to. An exact synonym is span class="extraFullWord">owing to .. .
Another common meaning of due is the date on something has to be done, as in Don't forget. Your project is due tomorrow.

102,00

duration [noun]
period of time

Associated:   during (preposition)
32,80

duty [noun]
responsibility, or job that you are required to do

28,00

dynamic [adjective]
changing; growing; energetic

Associated:   dynamism (noun); dynamically (adverb)
48,40

earn [verb]
to get money or another reward (usually by working for it)

Associated:   earning (noun)
59,70

economic [adjective]
financial; to do with money

Associated:   economy (noun); economically (adverb)
Note:   Economics is the study of finance . The economy is the total financial transactions of a country.
93,90

edit [verb]
to make changes in a piece of writing

Associated:   editor (noun)
Note:   An editor is someone who works for a newspaper or publisher, and is employed to check the writing submitted to them.
72,90

education [noun]
schooling

Associated:   educate (verb); educated (adjective)
544,00

effect [noun]
result

Associated:   affect (verb)
127,80

effective [adjective]
good, working well

Associated:   effectively (adverb)
Antonym: ineffective

102,80

efficient [adjective]
working quickly and easily

Associated:   efficiency (noun); efficiently (adverb)
Antonym: inefficient

37,60

effort [noun]
hard work; attempt

97,60

elaborate [adjective]
detailed; complex

Associated:   elaborately (adverb); elaboration (noun); elaborate (verb)
Note:   When elaborate is used as a verb, its second and last syllables are sounded strongly. When it is used as an adjective, only its second syllable is sounded strongly.
8,10

elect [verb]
to choose by voting

Associated:   election (noun)
Note:   An elective is a subject that the student can choose to take if he or she wishes. It is not compulsory.
25,00

element [noun]
aspect, part

46,60

elementary [adjective]
easy

41,00

eligible [adjective]
being entitled or qualified to do something

Associated:   eligibility(noun)
Antonym: ineligible

38,20

eliminate [verb]
to dispose of

Associated:   elimination (noun)
41,70

embody [verb]
to be a good example of ..

Associated:   embodiment (noun)
5,00

emerge [verb]
to come out; to become known

Associated:   emergence (noun)
23,40

emphasize [verb]
to stress, to say something strongly

Associated:   emphasis (noun)
Note:   Emphasize is also spelled emphasise.
35,10

employ [verb]
to give a job to someone; to use

Associated:   employment (noun)
Note:   Employ is the basis for many useful words such as employer (boss), employee (worker), unemployment (the state of having no work), etc.
35,40

enable [verb]
to make something or someone able to do something

Associated:  
Antonym: disable

Note:   If someone is disabled , it usually means that they have a disability that prevents them from doing everything that a healthy person can do; e.g. work, walk around, etc.
87,60

encounter [verb]
to meet or experience

Associated:   encounter (noun)
31,20

encourage [verb]
to move someone to do something by positive talk; support or help

Associated:   encouragement (noun)
Antonym: discourage

96,60

enforce [verb]
to make something happen (particularly a law or regulation)

Associated:   enforcement (noun)
19,30

engage [verb]
to participate in; to focus attention on

Associated:   engagement (noun)
Note:   To get engaged is to make a promise to marry, often by exchanging rings. Example: John and Mary got engaged last week and will marry at the end of September.
63,00

enhance [verb]
to make something better

Associated:   enhancement (noun)
92,40

enlarge [verb]
to make larger

Associated:   enlargement (noun)
Antonym: reduce

15,70

enormous [adjective]
very big

Associated:   enormity (noun); enormously (adverb)
Antonym: tiny

12,90

ensure [verb]
to make sure (of)

128,70

enter [verb]
to go in or put in

Associated:   entry (noun)
Antonym: leave, exit

164,70

entire [adjective]
whole, all

Associated:   entirely (adverb); entirety (noun)
87,40

entitle [verb]
to give the right to do something

Associated:   entitlement (noun); entitled (adjective)
1,80

entity [noun]
thing; body; organization

19,70

enumerate [verb]
to list

Associated:   enumeration (noun)
2,70

environment [noun]
the world around us

Associated:   environmental (adjective)
184,60

episode [noun]
period of time

10,40

equipment [noun]
the things you need (to do a job or play sport, etc.)

Associated:   equip (verb)
93,60

equivalent [adjective]
equal to; the same as

Associated:   equivalence (noun)
48,20

error [noun]
a mistake

Associated:   err (verb)
87,60

especially [adverb]
particularly

Associated:   especial (adjective)
95,80

essential [adjective]
very important

Note:   The adverb essentially means really, basically, as in Essentially she is a kind, cooperative girl but she doesn't always show it.
57,80

establish [verb]
to begin or set up

Associated:   establishment (noun)
96,90

estimate [verb]
to make an intelligent guess

Associated:   estimate (noun)
66,30

evaluate [verb]
to decide on the value, quality or importance of something

Associated:   evaluation (noun)
101,10

event [noun]
a happening

216,00

eventually [adverb]
in the end

Associated:   eventual (adjective)
34,40

evidence [noun]
proof, signs

106,40

evident [adjective]
clear

Associated:   evidently (adverb)
16,50

evolve [verb]
to develop (into something better)

Associated:   evolution (noun)
Note:   Charles Darwin is associated with the theory of evolution .
17,10

exact [adjective]
precise, opposite of approximate

Associated:   exactly (adverb); exactness (noun)
Antonym: rough

29,60

exaggerate [verb]
to "overstate" the truth; to say something is bigger or better than it really is

Associated:   exaggeration (noun)
1,70

examine [verb]
to look at carefully

Associated:   examination (noun)
90,90

exceed [verb]
to be more than or better than

Associated:   excess (noun)
41,70

except [preposition]
(but) not

Associated:   exception (noun)
Note:   In example sentence 2 above except is being used as a conjunction. Something that is exceptional is extremely good, outstanding , as in That was an exceptional piece of work. Well done!
45,10

exchange [verb]
to give or change one thing and get a different thing

Associated:   exchange (noun)
123,30

exclude [verb]
to leave out; opposite of include

Associated:   exclusion (noun)
Antonym: include

17,70

exercise [noun]
a piece of work, activity

Associated:   exercise (verb)
32,00

exert [verb]
to use

Note:   Another common meaning of exert is to make an effort (noun; exertion), as in She never seems to exert herself, but she always gets good grades.
7,40

exhaust [verb]
to use up

Associated:   exhaustive (adjective)
Note:   Exhausted / exhausting mean very tired / very tiring, as in I'm exhausted after doing all that exhausting work!
6,40

exhibit [noun]
to show

Associated:   exhibition (noun)
Note:   An exhibition is permanent or temporary display of art or objects in a gallery or museum.
48,60

exist [verb]
to be alive, to be in the world

Associated:   existence (noun)
84,30

expand [verb]
to get bigger; to move into new areas

Associated:   expansion (noun)
Antonym: contract

67,20

expel [verb]
to drive or push out

Associated:   expulsion (noun)
1,70

expense [noun]
cost

Associated:   expensive (adjective)
Note:   The verb expend has a similar meaning to spend. You can expend time, energy, money, etc.
25,00

experience [noun]
knowledge and skills gained over a long period of time

Associated:   experience (verb)
252,00

experiment [noun]
test

Associated:   experiment (verb); experimental (adjective)
52,40

expert [noun]
someone with great knowledge in a particular field

Associated:   expertise (noun)
47,40

explain [verb]
to give the reason for something or say how to do something

Associated:   explanation (noun)
111,60

explicit [adjective]
clearly and openly expressed

Associated:   explicitness (noun); explicitly (adverb)
Antonym: implicit

20,10

exploit [verb]
to use (sometimes in a negative way)

Associated:   exploitation (noun)
17,60

explore [verb]
to look into a place or thing (in order to learn more about it)

Associated:   exploration (noun); explorer (noun)
132,30

exponent [noun]
someone who holds and states an opinion

3,30

expose [verb]
to uncover, reveal

Associated:   exposure (noun)
Antonym: conceal

15,90

express [verb]
to say or mean

Associated:   expression (noun)
Note:   Another meaning of expression is group of words, as in I don't like the expression How's tricks? Why can't people just ask: "How are you?"
88,50

extend [verb]
to make longer in time or space

Associated:   extension (noun)
64,50

extent [noun]
size, amount

Associated:   extensive (adjective)
58,40

external [adjective]
outside

Associated:  
Antonym: internal

62,70

extract [noun]
to remove; to take out and use

Associated:   extraction (noun); extract (noun)
Note:   An extract is part of a text, as in Please read the extract on page 22 as homework.
15,50

extraordinary [adjective]
very unusual

Associated:   extraordinarily (adverb)
Antonym: ordinary

Note:   Extraordinarily (adverb) means extremely, as in He's extraordinarily good at chess.
14,80

extremely [adverb]
very

Associated:   extreme (adjective)
36,60

facilitate [verb]
to make something easier

Associated:   facilitation (noun)
67,20

facilities [noun]
buildings and other places that can be used by people

Note:   This word is almost twice as common in the plural as the singular.
152,60

factor [noun]
an aspect to be considered

41,20

fade [verb]
to disappear slowly

4,90

fail [verb]
to not do something, or not work as expected; to do badly

Associated:   failure (noun)
Antonym: succeed

58,50

faint [adjective]
not strong

Associated:  
Antonym: strong

3,30

fairly [adverb]
quite, somewhat

Associated:   fair (adjective)
26,20

fallacy [noun]
mistake; false belief

Associated:   fallacious (adjective)
1,90

familiar [adjective]
known; well-known

Associated:   familiarity (noun)
Antonym: unfamiliar

35,40

fare [verb]
to do or succeed

Note:   The noun fare means 1. food and 2. the money you must pay to travel by bus or train
9,70

fault [noun]
responsibility for a mistake or other problem

Associated:   fault (verb)
Note:   Another common meaning of fault is mistake, defect , as in There's a fault in this computer code, but I just can't find it.
16,50

fear [verb]
to be concerned or frightened about

Associated:   fear (noun); fearful (adjective)
46,50

feasible [adjective]
possible

Associated:   feasibility (noun)
Antonym: unfeasible, infeasible

12,70

feature [noun]
part, aspect

Associated:   feature (verb)
81,00

fee [noun]
money for a service (e.g. a baking service)

71,20

field [noun]
area of interest or study

Note:   The most common meaning of field is area of land, as in There were more than 100 cows in the field.
262,00

figure [noun]
number

Note:   Another common meaning of the noun figure is shape (person), as in I saw a strange figure standing by the gate.
91,00

final [adjective]
last

Associated:   finally (adverb)
Antonym: initial

137,70

finance [noun]
to do with money and payment

Associated:   finance (verb); financial (adjective)
88,20

firm [adjective]
strong, cannot be changed

Associated:   firmness (noun); firmly (adverb)
Antonym: weak

Note:   Another common meaning of firm (noun) is company, business, as in The firm is having financial problems.
32,60

flexible [adjective]
can be changed or bent

Associated:   flexibility (noun)
Antonym: inflexible, rigid

25,00

fluctuate [verb]
to vary; to rise and fall

Associated:   fluctuation (noun)
2,40

focus [verb]
to direct attention (on an issue)

Associated:   focus (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of focus is to make sharp, as in This picture is very unclear. Are you sure you know how to focus your camera?
245,40

force [verb]
to make happen or to make someone do something

Associated:   force (noun)
142,80

forecast [noun]
prediction

Associated:   forecast (verb)
13,00

forego [verb]
to do without; to give up

Note:   This word is sometimes spelled forgo .
1,90

form [verb]
to make (into a shape)

Associated:   form (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of form is an official document to be filled out, as in If you want a new passport, you will need to fill out this application form.
516,00

formal [adjective]
serious, not relaxed or everyday

Associated:  
Antonym: informal

48,20

format [noun]
appearance, layout, way of presenting

Associated:   format (verb)
125,40

former [adjective]
previous, the one before, the first of two

Associated:   formerly (adverb)
Antonym: latter

70,50

formula [noun]
a method of doing something

Note:   Some people use the plural formulae ; others formulas.
28,80

formulate [verb]
to express

Associated:   formulation (noun)
16,50

forthcoming [adjective]
coming soon

12,60

fortunate [adjective]
lucky

Associated:   fortune (noun); fortunately (adverb)
Antonym: unfortunate

7,10

found [verb]
to begin (often an organization)

Associated:   foundation (noun)
Note:   To found is a regular verb. Past tense: founded.
411,00

fragment [noun]
part of something

Associated:   fragment (verb); fragmentary (adjective)
7,90

frequent [adjective]
often

Associated:   frequency (noun); frequently (adverb)
Antonym: infrequent

21,30

friction [noun]
problems or arguments between two people or groups

Note:   The scientific meaning of friction is the force that stops two things sliding off each other, as in Bicycle brakes work by using friction.
5,90

frustrate [verb]
to stop or prevent

Associated:   frustration (noun)
Note:   Common derivations of this word are frustrated / frustrating to describe feelings of not being able to do or have what you want. Example: My email keeps breaking down. It's so frustrating.
1,50

fulfill [verb]
to do; to carry out (completely)

Associated:   fulfilment (noun); fulfilling (adjective)
Note:   This word is also spelled fulfil .
36,30

function [noun]
job or role

Associated:   function (verb)
148,60

fund [noun]
money collected for a particular purpose

Associated:   fund (verb)
Note:   A refund is money returned to the person who paid it (e.g. because she paid too much or could not be given what she ordered).
81,40

fundamental [adjective]
very important

Associated:   fundamentally (adverb)
43,60

furthermore [adverb]
also, in addition

28,00

gain [noun]
to get; to increase in ..

Associated:   gain (verb)
Antonym: lose

Note:   A popular athlete's expression about the need for hard physical work is: No pain, no gain!
75,60

gap [noun]
space, opening or time between

31,00

gather [verb]
to bring or get together

Associated:   gathering (noun)
Note:   Another meaning of gather (verb) is understand, have heard, as in I gather your not coming to my party.
35,10

generally [adverb]
usually

Associated:   general (adjective)
Note:   A useful alternative expression is in general . Example In general his work is good, but recently it has deteriorated.
75,20

generate [verb]
to make or produce

Associated:   generation (noun)
Note:   A generator is a machine to produce electricity.
73,80

generation [noun]
group of people all born around the same time

67,20

genuine [adjective]
real and authentic

Associated:   genuinely (adverb)
Antonym: fake

8,30

global [adjective]
world

Associated:   globe (noun); globalization (noun)
112,50

goal [noun]
aim or intention

Note:   Another common meaning of goal , of course, is what you score in football, as in I scored 3 goals in yesterday's game.
123,40

govern [verb]
to control or influence

Associated:   government (noun); governor (noun)
18,70

gradually [adverb]
slowly; steadily

Associated:   gradual (adjective)
Antonym: quickly

12,10

grant [noun]
a sum of money given to a person or organization

Associated:   grant (verb)
Note:   To grant is to give, as in The fairy granted him 3 wishes.
133,60

greatly [adverb]
very much

28,00

growth [noun]
development, increase

Associated:   grow (verb)
117,40

guarantee [noun]
to promise or assure that something will or will not happen

Associated:   guarantee (verb)
Note:   All electrical products come with a guarantee that they will be replaced if they break in the first year.
29,00

guide [noun]
someone or something that helps people (to understand or find their way)

Associated:   guide (verb); guidelines (noun)
177,60

habit [noun]
something you do regularly

Associated:   habitual (adjective); habitually (adverb)
10,20

halt [verb]
to stop

Associated:   halt (noun)
7,40

hardly [adverb]
not very much

Note:   A synonym is barely .
10,80

harm [verb]
to damage or injure

Associated:   harm (noun); harmful (adjective)
25,30

harsh [adjective]
hard, unfair

Associated:   harshness (noun); harshly (adverb)
5,30

hence [adverb]
so, therefore

29,80

hesitate [verb]
to pause before saying or doing something

Associated:   hesitation (noun)
11,00

hierarchy [noun]
organizational structure (e.g. showing who works for whom)

Associated:   hierarchical (adjective)
18,00

highlight [verb]
to show (the important features of something)

Note:   A highlight (noun) is the best part of an event or performance , as in For me the highlight of the show was when the girl played the piano with a hammer.
37,20

homogeneous [adjective]
having the same qualities or characteristics

Associated:   homogeneity (noun)
Note:   This word is also spelled homogenous .
6,60

hostile [adjective]
unfriendly; dangerous; strongly opposed to

Associated:   hostility (noun)
5,80

hypothesis [noun]
idea or prediction

Associated:   hypothesize (verb)
28,60

ideal [adjective]
best, optimal

Associated:   ideally (adverb); ideal (noun)
26,10

identical [adjective]
exactly the same

23,40

identify [verb]
to know or say who or what something is

Associated:   identification (noun)
155,70

ignorance [noun]
lack of knowledge

Associated:   ignorant (adjective)
Antonym: knowledge

7,10

ignore [verb]
to take no notice of; to leave out (of consideration)

28,20

illuminate [verb]
to show clearly; to light up

Associated:   illumination (noun)
6,40

illustrate [verb]
to show; to make clear

Associated:   illustrative (adverb); illustration(noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of illustration is picture, as in This book has many interesting illustrations.
42,30

image [noun]
picture

146,20

imaginary [adjective]
not real; from the imagination

Associated:   imagination (noun); imagine (verb)
Note:   The unicorn is an imaginary animal.
4,70

immediate [adjective]
first (without delay)

Associated:   immediately (adverb)
41,70

immense [adjective]
very large

Associated:   immensely (adverb); immensity (noun)
4,30

impact [noun]
effect

Associated:   impact (verb)
133,40

implement [verb]
to start or put into practice (something that has been planned)

Associated:   implementation (noun)
72,00

implication [noun]
result or consequence

9,00

imply [verb]
to mean; to give to understand

Associated:   implication (noun)
27,20

import [verb]
to bring in (to a country)

Associated:   import (noun)
Antonym: export

Note:   In the noun import the first syllable is stressed. In the verb import the second syllable is stressed. The same applies to export.
26,20

impose [verb]
to force; to require to happen

Associated:   imposition (noun)
20,30

impress [verb]
to create a favourable reaction

Associated:   impression (noun); impressive (adjective)
4,50

improve [verb]
to get better

Associated:   improvement (noun)
Antonym: deteriorate

170,70

impulse [noun]
reason or motivation to do something

Associated:   impel (verb)
5,50

incentive [noun]
reason to do something

15,30

incident [noun]
happening; event

21,00

include [verb]
to put in; to have in

Associated:   inclusion (noun)
Antonym: exclude

462,00

income [noun]
money earned

58,80

incorporate [verb]
to include

Associated:   incorporation (noun)
41,10

increase [verb]
to get bigger

Associated:   increase (noun)
Antonym: decrease

Note:   In the noun increase the first syllable is stressed. In the verb increase the second syllable is stressed. The same applies to decrease.
200,10

indeed [adverb]
.. used in confirmation or emphasis; really

38,80

independent [adjective]
free; not needing anyone or anything else

Associated:   independence (noun); independently (adverb)
Antonym: dependent

88,50

indicate [verb]
to show or convey

Associated:   indication (noun)
114,90

indirectly [adverb]
in a indirect way; not straight or immediate

Associated:  
Antonym: directly

8,80

individual [noun]
one person

Associated:   individually (adverb)
208,00

induce [verb]
to make happen; to force

Associated:   induction (noun)
17,30

industry [noun]
area of business ( often manufacturing )

Associated:   industrial (adjective)
Note:   The adjective industrious means hard-working, as in She is a very industrious student.
120,40

inevitable [adjective]
cannot be changed or avoided; obvious

Associated:   inevitably (adverb); inevitability (noun)
Note:   There is no opposite word evitable .
7,30

infer [verb]
to come to a conclusion about something

Associated:   inference (noun)
11,50

infinite [adjective]
without an end

Associated:   infinity (noun); infinitely (adverb)
Antonym: finite

8,90

influence [noun]
effect

Associated:   influence (verb); influential (adjective)
70,80

inform [verb]
to say, give information

Associated:   information (noun)
54,00

inherent [adjective]
part of; a fundamental characteristic of

Associated:   inherently (adverb)
14,70

inhibit [verb]
to prevent or stop

Associated:   inhibition (noun)
10,10

initial [adjective]
starting, first

Associated:   initially (adverb)
Note:   Used as a plural noun initials (noun) refer to the first letters of each of your names. . The webmaster's initials are PWS (Paul William Shoebottom).
75,20

innovation [noun]
new object or idea

Associated:   innovate (verb)
43,20

inquire [verb]
to ask

Associated:   inquiry (noun)
Note:   This word is sometimes spelled enquire (enquiry) .
11,20

insert [verb]
to put in

Associated:   insertion (noun)
Antonym: remove

28,70

insight [noun]
understanding (often of a complex problem)

30,60

insist [verb]
to demand; to make a strong claim

Associated:   insistence (noun)
9,10

inspect [verb]
to look at carefully

Associated:   inspection (noun); inspector (noun)
9,20

install [verb]
to put in (often a machine or new system)

Associated:   installation (noun)
32,40

instance [noun]
example

50,00

instant [adjective]
immediate

Associated:   instantly (adverb)
13,80

instead [preposition]
in place of; rather than

Note:   Instead can also function as an adverb, as in example sentences 2 and 4 below. When it is used as a preposition, it must be followed by of.
52,90

instinct [noun]
natural feeling or reaction

Associated:   instinctive (adjective)
2,60

institution [noun]
a large organization; an important system or custom

Note:   Institute is a similar word used for a large organization.
114,80

instruction [noun]
advice or teaching how to do something; an order to do something

Associated:   instruct (verb); instructor (noun)
88,00

integrate [verb]
to fit into a new situation

Associated:   integration (noun)
41,40

intense [adjective]
strong, extreme

Associated:   intensely (adverb); intensity (noun)
14,60

intention [noun]
plan, aim

Associated:   intend (verb)
15,90

interact [verb]
to react, to affect and be affected

Associated:   interaction (noun)
51,30

interfere [verb]
to prevent; to harm

Associated:   interference (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of interfere is to involve oneself in a situation where one's involvement is unwanted, as in Please don't interfere. It's none of your business!
17,00

interior [noun]
inside

Associated:   interior (adjective)
Antonym: exterior

30,20

interpretation [noun]
explanation; assessment

Associated:   interpret (verb)
50,60

interrupt [verb]
to stop something from happening

Associated:   interruption (noun)
7,40

interval [noun]
a period of time

23,60

intervene [verb]
to step into a situation (in order to stop or change something)

Associated:   intervention (noun)
6,60

intrinsic [adjective]
belonging to; inherent in

Associated:  
Antonym: extrinsic

8,20

introduce [verb]
to talk about or bring in for the first time

Associated:   introduction (noun)
Note:   Another common use of introduce is when meeting someone for the first time. Example: Let me introduce Mary. She's the new science teacher in grade 7.
65,40

invent [verb]
to create (often a new object)

Associated:   invention (noun); inventive (adjective)
6,50

invest [verb]
to put money into something

Associated:   investment (noun); investor (noun)
25,60

investigate [verb]
to find out what has happened or why something has happened

Associated:   investigation (noun)
56,70

invisible [adjective]
cannot be seen

Associated:   invisibility (noun)
Antonym: visible

2,30

involve [verb]
to include or mean

Associated:   involvement (noun)
71,70

isolate [verb]
to separate something or someone from others

Associated:   isolation (noun)
10,00

issue [noun]
a matter or problem

Note:   Another common meaning of issue is a particular edition of a newspaper or magazine, as in Have you seen last week's issue of Time?
164,00

item [noun]
thing, element

73,80

join [verb]
to become a member (of an organization; to get together with others

Note:   A joint is part of the body where two bones meet (e.g. elbow) A junction is where two or more roads meet.
148,50

journey [noun]
a long trip to a different place

Associated:   journey (verb)
24,40

judge [verb]
to give an opinion about someone or something

Associated:   judgement (noun); judge (noun)
Note:   A judge is the person with the power to sentence a convicted criminal in a law court . ( Judgement can also be spelled judgment.)
46,50

justice [noun]
fairness in law

Associated:   just (adjective)
Antonym: injustice

75,00

justify [verb]
to give a reason for doing something

Associated:   justification (noun)
22,80

key [adjective]
most important

Note:   The most common meaning of key (noun) , of course, is metal object used too lock and unlock doors.
128,60

label [verb]
to give a name to someone or something

Associated:   label (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of label is the small cloth or paper tag on clothing or food with information about the item or the name of the item's manufacturer .
48,60

labour [noun]
work

Associated:   labour (verb)
Note:   In American English labour is spelled labor.
6,40

lack [noun]
absence of a thing

Associated:   lack (verb); lacking (adjective)
68,00

largely [adverb]
mostly

27,90

latter [adjective]
the second of two things mentioned

Associated:  
Antonym: former

32,60

launch [verb]
to begin

Associated:   launch (noun)
33,60

layer [noun]
level

29,00

lecture [noun]
a talk on a particular subject; talk criticizing unacceptable behaviour

Associated:   lecture (verb)
112,20

legal [adjective]
acceptable in law (to do with the law)

Associated:   legally (adverb); legality (noun)
Antonym: illegal

107,40

legislation [noun]
governmental rule; law

Associated:   legislate (verb); legislator (noun)
31,20

legitimate [adjective]
correct; allowed

Associated:   legitimately (adjective)
Antonym: illegitimate

Note:   An illegitimate child is one born to parents who are not married.
10,90

lessen [verb]
to reduce

Associated:   less (adjective)
Antonym: increase

5,50

level [noun]
standard; layer; amount

Associated:   level (verb)
Note:   Level is useful word with many shades of meaning. You are recommended to use your dictionary to find these.
264,00

liable [adjective]
likely to happen; at risk of happening

Note:   Liable / liability also mean legally responsible / legal responsibility , as in If a car breaks down in its first few months, the car dealer is liable to repair or replace it.
6,90

liberty [noun]
freedom

Associated:   liberate (verb)
19,20

license [noun]
permission to do something (often an official document)

Associated:   license (verb)
Note:   This word can also be spelled licence .
46,40

likely [adjective]
probable

Associated:   likelihood (noun)
Antonym: unlikely

80,40

limit [noun]
extent, boundary

Associated:   limit (verb); limitation (noun)
68,40

local [adjective]
in the area where you live or work

Associated:   locality (noun); locally (adverb)
168,00

location [noun]
place, where something or someone is

Associated:   locate (verb)
210,00

logical [adjective]
making sense

Associated:   logic (noun); logically (adverb)
Antonym: illogical

21,20

loose [adjective]
not firm or finished

Associated:   loosely (adverb)
Antonym: firm, tight

10,30

loss [noun]
removal or reduction

Associated:   lose (verb)
Antonym: gain

Note:   Another common meaning of loss is the result of losing something, as in I am still sad about the loss of my camera.
89,20

magnify [verb]
to make or show larger

Associated:   magnification (noun)
1,80

magnitude [noun]
size; amount

26,20

main [adjective]
most important

Associated:   mainly (adverb)
246,00

maintain [verb]
to claim or state

Note:   Another common meaning of maintain (noun: maintenance) is to keep in a good working condition , as in Some cars are more expensive to maintain than others.
126,00

major [adjective]
important, large

Associated:  
Antonym: minor

Note:   A major (noun) is a student's first and most important subject at college.
201,00

majority [noun]
more than 50%

Associated:  
Antonym: minority

55,00

manage [verb]
to succeed in doing something; to be able to do something

Note:   Another very common meaning of manage is associated with business, as in manager / management, etc.
78,30

manifest [verb]
show

Associated:   manifestation (noun)
12,10

manipulate [verb]
to (use and) change

Associated:   manipulation (noun)
14,70

manner [noun]
way of doing something

67,00

manufacture [verb]
to produce (with machines)

Associated:   manufacture (noun); manufacturer (noun)
13,60

margin [noun]
amount; distance

Note:   The margin of a piece of paper is the 2-3 centimeter strip down the left or right side of the paper. Teachers like to write comments in the margin of students' written work.
16,80

massive [adjective]
very large

Associated:   massively (adverb)
14,70

master [verb]
to (gain) control

Associated:   mastery (noun)
214,20

materials [noun]
the things you need to do something

Note:   In the singular material has a broader meaning. For example: The teacher has given us a lot of material to read by Monday. (Use your dictionary to find other meanings.)
199,40

means [noun]
way

159,20

measure [verb]
to find out how much there is of something

Associated:   measurement (noun)
Note:   Another important meaning of measure (noun) is action taken to achieve a goal , as in The government needs to think of alternative measures for dealing with the problem. With this meaning the noun is usually found in the plural.
110,40

mechanism [noun]
procedure, process

45,60

medium [adjective]
in the middle

34,00

member [noun]
a person who is part of a team or other organization

214,00

mental [adjective]
of the brain or mind

Associated:  
Antonym: physical

44,70

mention [verb]
to say; state

Associated:   mention (noun)
45,90

merely [adverb]
only, just, simply

Associated:   mere (adjective)
21,00

method [noun]
a way of doing something

125,60

migrate [verb]
to go to another place

Associated:   migrant (noun); migration (noun)
Note:   Migrate is the basis of common words such as immigrate (come into a country) / immigrant / immigration - emigrate (leave a country) / emigrant / emigration.
7,10

military [adjective]
to do with army

Associated:   military (noun)
48,30

minimum [noun]
the smallest amount; the least

Associated:   minimize (verb)
Antonym: maximum

Note:   Minimize can also be spelled minimise.
94,20

minor [adjective]
small, not important

Associated:  
Antonym: major

51,90

mixture [noun]
combination

Associated:   mix (verb)
16,90

mobile [adjective]
moving; able to move

Associated:   mobility (noun)
Antonym: immobile

28,40

moderate [adjective]
not very much; not very strong; not extreme

Associated:   moderately (adverb); moderation (noun)
18,40

modify [verb]
to change

Associated:   modification (noun)
43,80

monitor [verb]
to watch ( someone's or something's behaviour )

Associated:   monitor (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of monitor (noun) is viewing screen of a computer.
74,70

moreover [adverb]
also .., what is more ..

26,70

motivate [verb]
to get someone interested enough to do something

Associated:   motivation (noun)
14,80

motive [noun]
reason

4,60

multiply [verb]
to increase greatly

Associated:   multiplication (noun)
12,90

namely [adverb]
specifically, that is to say ( .. used to list or explain)

15,30

naturally [adverb]
of course, obviously

Associated:   natural (adjective)
Note:   Another common meaning of naturally is in a natural way , as in Some illnesses heal naturally without advice or medicine from a doctor.
18,80

necessary [adjective]
needed; very important

Associated:   necessity (noun); necessarily (adverb)
Antonym: unnecessary, superfluous

134,20

neglect [verb]
to not think about or care for

Associated:   neglect (noun); negligent (adjective)
8,80

negotiate [verb]
to discuss (usually in politics or business)

Associated:   negotiation (noun); negotiator (noun)
14,80

neither [conjuntion]
not one or the other; not either

Note:   Neither has various functions. It can be used as a pronoun, adjective, conjunction or adverb. In example sentence 1 and 3 above neither is a pronoun; in 2 and 4 it is a conjunction.
25,10

neutral [adjective]
neither for nor against; neither positive nor negative

Associated:   neutrality (noun)
13,30

nevertheless [adverb]
however (although / despite that)

Note:   A close, but less common, synonym of nevertheless is nonetheless.
18,60

notice [verb]
to see or realize

Associated:   notice (noun)
Note:   A notice is a piece of paper put up somewhere with information for people to read, as in Did you see the notice outside the library saying that all their computers are down?.
132,90

notion [noun]
idea; concept

27,60

novel [adjective]
new

Associated:   novelty (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of novel (noun) is a long fiction story, as in One of the most famous novels in the English language is Great Expectations.
34,80

numerous [adjective]
very many

51,20

obey [verb]
to do as commanded or expected

Associated:   obedience (noun)
Antonym: disobey

8,20

object [noun]
thing

69,20

objection [noun]
(a statement of) disagreement or disapproval

Associated:   object (verb)
5,30

objective [noun]
aim or goal

Note:   Another common meaning of objective (adjective) is without bias or prior opinion (opposite of subjective). Example: He's your son. How can you be objective about his chances of success?
54,00

obligation [noun]
a requirement to do something

Associated:   oblige (verb); obliged (adjective)
16,50

observe [verb]
to watch carefully

Associated:   observation (noun)
52,80

obsolete [adjective]
not used or needed any more; out of date

Associated:   obsolescence (noun)
4,30

obstacle [noun]
barrier; problem

6,70

obtain [verb]
to get

126,30

obvious [adjective]
clear, evident

Associated:   obviously (adverb)
27,20

occasion [noun]
time (opportunity)

15,60

occasionally [adverb]
sometimes

Associated:   occasional (adjective)
17,20

occupy [verb]
to up space or time

Associated:   occupation (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of occupation is job, as in Banking is a popular occupation because you can earn a lot of money.
12,50

occur [verb]
to happen; take place

Associated:   occurrence (noun)
118,50

odd [adjective]
strange, unusual

Associated:   oddly (adverb); oddity (noun)
Note:   1, 3, 5, 7, 9 .. are odd numbers. 2, 4, 6, 8 .. are even.
12,00

offend [verb]
to go against; to upset

Associated:   offence (noun); offender (noun)
Note:   Offence can also be spelled offense.
2,60

offer [verb]
to ask if someone would like something (e.g. food or help)

Associated:   offer (noun)
182,70

official [adjective]
approved by an authority

Associated:   officially (adverb); official (noun)
Antonym: unofficial

Note:   An official is a person with authority such as a policeman, as in Government officials are always telling us what to do.
75,40

omit [verb]
to leave something out or not do something

Associated:   omission (noun)
8,50

operation [noun]
procedure; happening; process

Associated:   operate (verb)
Note:   Another common meaning of operation is surgery (cutting into the body) , as in I need to have an operation to remove the lump on the back of my hand.
71,00

opinion [noun]
view; what you think about someone or something

Associated:   opine (verb); opinionated (adjective)
63,60

opportunity [noun]
chance

Associated:   opportune (adjective)
195,60

oppose [verb]
to be against or fight against something

Associated:   opposition (noun)
Antonym: favour

8,80

optional [adjective]
not necessary or compulsory; can do it if you want

Associated:   option (noun); optionally (adverb)
Antonym: compulsory

Note:   An option is a choice , as in You have two options: you can be quiet or you can leave the room.
27,40

order [noun]
sequence, place

Associated:   order (verb)
Note:   Another common meaning of order (noun and verb) is command , as in The teacher gave the order to leave the room. A further common use is in the expression in order to as in I went to the library in order to use one of the computers.
312,00

ordinary [adjective]
usual, typical, every day

Associated:   ordinarily (adverb)
Antonym: extraordinary

18,80

organize [verb]
to put into (its proper) place

Associated:   organization (noun)
Note:   The most common meaning of organization is a large group of people working for a common purpose , as in Greenpeace is an organization that works to protect the environment.
42,60

original [adjective]
the first of its kind

Associated:   originate (verb); original (adjective); originally (adverb); origin (noun)
Note:   The origin of something is where or how it starts, as in Can anyone tell me the origin of the word spam (email spam)?
102,90

otherwise [conjuntion]
or (else)

49,00

outcome [noun]
result

35,60

outline [noun]
plan or summary

Associated:   outline (verb)
42,20

outstanding [adjective]
excellent

Associated:   outstandingly (adverb)
45,80

overall [adjective]
general

Associated:   overall (adverb)
79,00

overcome [verb]
to conquer, defeat

33,60

overlap [verb]
to have in common; to cover part of

Associated:   overlap (noun)
21,20

overly [adverb]
too

Note:   It is common to just use over and join it to the adjective with a hyphen: over-protective, over-ambitious, over-critical , etc.
4,90

override [verb]
to take precedence over; to disregard

7,40

owe [verb]
to be in someone's debt (especially money)

14,10

own [verb]
to have or possess

Associated:   owner (noun)
390,00

participate [verb]
to take part

Associated:   participation (noun)
150,30

particular [adjective]
specific

Associated:   particularly (adverb)
Note:   Particularly means especially , as in That test was not particularly difficult.
114,40

passage [noun]
a piece of written or spoken text

20,60

passive [adjective]
not active; unresponsive

Associated:  
Antonym: active

10,40

pattern [noun]
clear and consistent behaviour

Note:   Pattern also refers to the lines and shapes on a piece of clothing, as in I like the pattern on your shirt!
54,40

penalty [noun]
negative consequence; punishment

Associated:   penalize (verb)
Note:   Another common meaning of penalty is from football, as in Ronaldo missed the penalty.
19,80

perceive [verb]
to see; to become aware of with one of the senses; to think

Associated:   perception (noun)
15,50

performance [noun]
action or achievement

Associated:   perform (verb); performer (noun)
Note:   Performance is most commonly used to refer to musical, theatrical or sporting activities.
178,60

perhaps [adverb]
maybe, possibly

56,10

period [noun]
a length of time (e.g. a lesson)

154,40

permanent [adjective]
lasting for ever or for a very long time

Associated:   permanence (noun); permanently (adverb)
Antonym: temporary

38,00

permit [verb]
to allow

Associated:   permission (noun)
Antonym: forbid

Note:   A permit (noun) is an official piece of paper allowing the holder to do something (cf. license) , as in You will need a permit if you want to fish here.
49,80

perpetual [adjective]
continuing for ever; never disappearing

Associated:   perpetuity (noun); perpetually (adjective)
3,80

persist [verb]
to continue (often in the face of difficulty)

Associated:   persistence (noun)
10,80

perspective [noun]
view; opinion; way of thinking

Note:   In art perspective is the term used for how the artist shows depth. Example: The perspective in this painting is all wrong. It makes him look like he's bigger than the building!
76,00

persuade [verb]
to try and make someone do something or agree to something

Associated:   persuasion (noun); persuasive (adjective)
8,10

phase [noun]
a (short) period of time; stage

58,20

phenomenon [noun]
a happening (often unusual or unexpected)

Note:   The plural of phenomenon is phenomena.
23,00

phrase [noun]
a few words; a written or spoken saying

Associated:   phrase (verb)
25,00

physical [adjective]
of the body

Associated:   physically (adverb)
Antonym: mental

126,40

plenty [noun]
many, lots of

Associated:   plentiful (adjective)
15,90

point [noun]
purpose; reason; value

Note:   Another meaning of point as a noun is score or mark , as in: This question is worth 4 points . A common meaning of point as a verb is to show with the finger, as in Can you point to the animal in this picture?
224,00

policy [noun]
formal rules

336,00

political [adjective]
to do government and politics

Associated:   politics (noun); politician (noun)
96,60

poor [adjective]
bad, unsatisfactory

Associated:   poverty (noun); poorly (adverb)
Antonym: good

Note:   The most common meaning of poor , of course, is not rich.
47,60

portion [noun]
part, amount

58,40

positive [adjective]
good; optimistic

Associated:  
Antonym: negative

Note:   In maths and science the word positive is associated with + plus and negative with - minus.
69,90

possess [verb]
to have or own

Associated:   possession (noun); possessor (noun)
28,90

postpone [verb]
to put back in time

Associated:   postponement (noun)
4,10

potential [noun]
good possibility

Associated:   potential (adjective); potentially (adverb)
143,00

power [noun]
the right or authority to do something

Associated:   powerful (adverb); empower (verb)
152,60

practical [adjective]
useful; possible

Associated:  
Antonym: impractical

Note:   A synonym of practically is practicable. The adverb practically means almost, as in I've practically finished with my research project.
57,20

praise [verb]
to express approval about something someone has done

Associated:   praise (noun)
17,20

precaution [noun]
something done to avoid danger, harm or problems

Note:   It is common to see this word used in the plural: precautions . Example: The police failed to take the necessary precautions to prevent fighting between the two groups of demonstrators .
1,60

precede [verb]
to go or be before someone or something

Associated:   preceding (adjective)
Antonym: succeed

5,00

precise [adjective]
exact

Associated:   precisely (adverb); precision (noun)
Antonym: imprecise

18,90

predict [verb]
to say what will happen in the future

Associated:   prediction (noun); predictable (adjective)
40,80

predominantly [adverb]
mostly

Associated:   predominant (adjective)
6,90

prefer [verb]
to like better

Associated:   preference (noun)
45,60

prejudice [noun]
bias, discrimination, beliefs or feelings influenced by one's own background

Associated:   prejudice (verb); prejudiced (adjective)
7,60

preliminary [adjective]
first; initial

30,60

prepare [verb]
to get something ready (or to get ready for something)

Associated:   preparation (noun)
Note:   If you are prepared to do something, this means that you are ready and willing to not it. Example: The doctor was not prepared to give a reason for his decision.
114,60

present [verb]
to give or show; to make a presentation

Associated:   presentation (noun); presenter (noun)
Note:   Two more common meanings of present : 1. present (adjective) = here (opposite of absent), and 2. present (noun) = gift.
336,00

preserve [verb]
to keep (safe)

Associated:   preservation (noun)
36,90

pressure [noun]
force; influence; stress

Associated:   pressure (verb); pressurize (verb)
59,60

prestige [noun]
fame and respect

Associated:   prestigious (adjective)
4,80

presume [verb]
to believe, assume

Associated:   presumption (noun); presumably (adverb)
4,80

prevail [verb]
to succeed; to overcome

7,40

prevent [verb]
to stop from doing or happening

Associated:   prevention (verb); preventative (adjective)
93,90

previous [adjective]
the one before

Associated:   previously (adjective)
Antonym: next

204,00

prime [adjective]
most important

Associated:   primarily (adverb)
Note:   A close synonym of prime is primary, as in Passing this test is my primary concern.
18,00

principal [adjective]
most important

Note:   Another common meaning of principal (noun) is leader of a school, as in The principal wants to see you - now!
46,20

principle [noun]
rule

41,00

prior [preposition]
before

Associated:   prior(adjective)
Note:   The preposition prior must be followed by to (prior to = before).
71,00

priority [noun]
first and most important task

Associated:   prioritize (verb)
39,20

privilege [noun]
a right (to do something)

13,30

probable [adjective]
likely

Associated:   probably (adverb); probability (noun)
Antonym: improbable

7,60

procedure [noun]
the way to do something

71,60

proceed [verb]
to go forward (and do ..)

38,70

process [noun]
a series of steps

282,00

procure [verb]
to get or obtain

Associated:   procurement (noun)
3,80

produce [verb]
to make or create

Associated:   product (noun)
130,50

profession [noun]
job; occupation

Associated:   professional (adjective)
29,20

profit [noun]
money gained

Associated:   profit (verb); profitable (adjective)
Antonym: loss

48,60

profound [adjective]
deep; great; serious

Associated:   profundity (noun); profoundly (adverb)
10,20

programme [noun]
a course of lessons; a project

Note:   A television programme is a single broadcast item, such as The Simspons. ( Programme is spelled program in American English.)
9,10

progress [noun]
improvement or development

Associated:   progress (verb)
97,00

prohibit [verb]
to ban, disallow

Associated:   prohibition (noun)
Antonym: permit

9,70

promote [verb]
to encourage; to raise to a higher position in a job

Associated:   promotion (noun)
93,00

prompt [adjective]
quick; on or before time

Associated:   promptly (adverb); promptness (noun)
10,90

propensity [noun]
tendency; desire

3,40

proper [adjective]
correct, appropriate

Associated:   properly (adjective)
Antonym: improper

46,50

property [noun]
the things that belong to someone, especially their home

91,00

proportion [noun]
amount; number; percentage

Associated:   proportional (adjective); proportionately (adverb)
22,00

propose [verb]
to suggest

Associated:   proposal (noun); proponent (noun)
Note:   A proponent is a person who proposes or actively supports an idea or plan.
39,60

prospect [noun]
chance, likelihood

13,10

prosper [verb]
to do well; to become rich

Associated:   prosperity (noun); prosperous (adverb)
3,90

protect [verb]
to keep something out of danger

Associated:   protection (noun)
79,80

protest [verb]
to express anger or unhappiness about something

Associated:   protest (noun); protestor (noun)
15,40

prove [verb]
to show to be true

Associated:   proof (noun)
Antonym: disprove

55,50

provide [verb]
to give

Associated:   provision (noun)
Note:   The expression provided that means on condition that , as in You can borrow my iPod provided that you give it back before I go home.
471,00

province [noun]
area (of interest

12,20

provoke [verb]
to cause to happen

Associated:   provocation (noun)
4,20

public [adjective]
open to all; not private

Associated:  
Antonym: private

Note:   The public are the people of a country, as in It's time the public were told about the proposed tax increases.
309,00

publish [verb]
to make available in paper or online form

Associated:   publication (noun); publisher (noun)
37,50

purchase [verb]
to buy

Associated:   purchase (noun)
Antonym: sell

107,10

pure [adjective]
complete, 100%

Associated:   purely (adverb); purity (noun)
20,00

purpose [noun]
reason, goal

135,40

pursue [verb]
to follow (or do)

Associated:   pursuit (noun)
65,70

qualify [verb]
to become eligible

Associated:   qualification (noun)
34,80

quality [noun]
worth or value

Associated:   qualitative (adjective)
183,00

quantity [noun]
amount

Associated:   quantitative (adjective); quantify (verb)
27,20

radical [adjective]
extreme, strong

Associated:   radically (adverb)
12,30

raise [verb]
to lift; to make higher

Associated:   raise (noun)
Antonym: lower

62,40

random [adjective]
by chance; without any sequence

Associated:   randomness (noun); randomly (adverb)
43,20

range [noun]
extent, distance between two points

160,20

rank [noun]
position (in a list or hierarchy)

Associated:   rank (verb)
35,40

rapid [adjective]
quick

Associated:   rapidity (noun); rapidly (adverb)
Antonym: slow

31,50

rare [adjective]
unusual

Associated:   rarity (noun); rarely (adverb)
Antonym: frequent, common

30,00

rate [noun]
quantity; proportion; speed

Note:   Another common meaning of rate (verb) is to judge, give an opinion about .., as in How did you rate the science lesson we had yesterday?
132,40

rather [adverb]
instead

Note:   Another common meaning of rather is quite, somewhat, as in I think I did rather well in the test.
102,90

ratio [noun]
mathematical relationship between two amount

43,20

rational [adjective]
base on reason, not on emotion or instinct

Associated:   rationale (noun); rationally (adverb)
Antonym: irrational

14,50

react [verb]
to respond

Associated:   reaction (noun)
16,00

realize [verb]
to come to know or understand

Associated:   realization (noun)
Note:   Realize can also be spelled realise
48,00

reasonable [adjective]
acceptable, quite good

Associated:   reasonably (adverb)
Antonym: unreasonable

38,60

receive [verb]
to get

Associated:   receipt (noun)
Antonym: give, get

243,00

recently [adverb]
in the near past

Associated:   recent (adjective)
88,00

recognize [verb]
to know or understand (who someone is or what something is)

Associated:   recognition (noun)
Note:   Recognize can also be spelled recognise
79,20

recommend [verb]
to suggest something to someone because it is good

Associated:   recommendation (noun)
66,30

record [noun]
evidence; documentation

Associated:   record (verb)
Note:   Another common meaning of record (noun) is best performance , as in The record for the most goals scored in a professional football match is 36.
139,80

recover [verb]
to get back

Associated:   recovery (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of recover is to get better from an illness, as in She has not yet recovered from the fever she caught last year.
22,40

recur [verb]
to happen again

Associated:   recurrence (noun)
2,40

reduce [verb]
to make smaller or shorter

Associated:   reduction (noun)
Antonym: enlarge

119,70

refer [verb]
to direct (attention) to; to mean

Associated:   reference (noun)
97,20

reflect [verb]
to think or consider

Associated:   reflection (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of reflect / reflection is connected with mirrors, glass, etc. Example: I saw my reflection in the shop window as I walked past.
95,70

reform [verb]
to change and improve

Associated:   reform (noun)
50,10

refuse [verb]
to not do something that someone wants you to do

Associated:   refusal (noun)
Antonym: agree, comply

16,60

refute [verb]
to prove to be untrue; to deny

Associated:   refutation (noun)
2,90

regard [verb]
to think or have an opinion about something or someone

Associated:   regard (noun)
64,20

regarding [preposition]
about, concerning, with respect to

Note:   Other forms of regarding are with regard to, as regards , as in I need to speak to John's parents as regards / with regard to his constant absence.
57,90

region [noun]
part of a place

Associated:   regional (adjective)
106,80

regret [verb]
to feel sorry (for doing or saying something)

Associated:   regret (noun)
7,70

regular [adjective]
predictable, following a pattern; normal

Associated:   regularly (adverb); regularity (noun)
Antonym: irregular

72,30

regulate [verb]
to control

Associated:   regulation (noun)
18,20

reinforce [verb]
to make something stronger

Associated:   reinforcement (noun)
14,00

reject [verb]
to refuse

Associated:   rejection (noun)
Antonym: accept

19,50

related [adjective]
connected; having something to do with each other

Associated:   relation (noun); relationship (noun)
Antonym: unrelated

264,00

relationship [noun]
the way to things are connected

Note:   Another common use of relationship is when referring to how people get on with each other. Example: She doesn't have a very good relationship with her parents.
105,00

release [verb]
to let go or let out

Associated:   release (noun)
153,90

relevant [adjective]
connected to the topic of discussion or consideration

Associated:   relevance (noun)
Antonym: irrelevant

69,40

reliable [adjective]
can be trusted, does not let you down

Associated:   reliability (noun)
Antonym: unreliable

23,00

reluctance [noun]
unwillingness; hesitation

Associated:   reluctant (adjective); reluctantly (adverb)
Antonym: willingness

3,20

remain [verb]
to stay; still exist

Associated:   remainder (noun)
Note:   The remains (noun) of something is what is left of it after a long time, as in We walked along the remains of the ancient Roman wall.
115,50

remedy [noun]
cure (often for an illness)

Associated:   remedy (verb); remedial(adjective)
9,70

remote [adjective]
far, distant, small

Associated:   remotely (adverb)
Antonym: close

36,90

remove [verb]
to take away

Associated:   removal (noun)
73,80

repeat [verb]
to do or say again

Associated:   repetition (noun); repetitive (adjective)
41,70

replace [verb]
to put in or take the place of ..

Associated:   replacement (noun)
56,40

reply [noun]
an answer

Associated:   reply (verb)
48,20

represent [verb]
to be; to show or indicate

Associated:   representation (noun); representative(adjective)
Note:   A representative (noun, often shortened to rep) is a person who works for a company. Example; A rep came to my house yesterday and tried to sell me a vacuum cleaner.
118,80

request [verb]
to ask politely

Associated:   request (noun)
306,00

require [verb]
to need

Associated:   requirement (noun)
185,40

research [noun]
study; the finding of information

Associated:   research (verb)
682,00

reserve [verb]
to keep

Associated:   reservation (noun)
74,40

resident [noun]
a person who lives in a place

Associated:   reside (verb); residence (noun)
39,60

resign [verb]
to give up (one's job)

Associated:   resignation (noun)
3,90

resist [verb]
to fight against

Associated:   resistance (noun)
14,80

resource [noun]
a source of information or material

165,60

respect [verb]
to think positively about someone; to tolerate or avoid interfering with something

Associated:   respect (noun); respectful (adjective); respected (adjective)
120,60

respectively [adverb]
.. an expression used to refer to two things, one after the other

Associated:   respective (adjective)
38,40

response [noun]
answer or reply; reaction

Associated:   respond (verb)
132,00

responsibility [noun]
job, duty to do something

Associated:   responsible (adjective)
88,80

restore [verb]
to put back, create again

Associated:   restoration (noun)
21,60

restrict [verb]
to limit

Associated:   restriction (noun); restricted (adjective)
25,80

result [noun]
outcome, effect

Associated:   result (verb); resulting (adjective)
178,80

retain [verb]
to keep

Associated:   retention (noun)
36,90

retire [verb]
to stop working

Associated:   retirement (noun)
9,60

retreat [verb]
to go back

Associated:   retreat (noun)
Antonym: advance

23,40

reveal [verb]
to show or uncover

Associated:   revelation (noun)
Antonym: conceal

37,80

revenue [noun]
money, income

26,40

reverse [verb]
to turn back or go back

Associated:   reverse (noun); reversal (noun)
42,30

review [verb]
to check over (and make changes)

Associated:   review (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of review (noun / verb) is written or spoken opinion about a book, film, etc., as in Did you read the review of Madonna's new CD? I thought it was rather harsh.
360,00

revise [verb]
to change (in order to improve)

Associated:   revision (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of revision (for British students) is the work done in preparation for exams, as in Sorry, I can't play tennis today. I haven't finished my revision.
16,90

revive [verb]
to bring back (to life)

Associated:   revival (noun)
3,10

revolution [noun]
(a time of) great change

Associated:   revolt (verb)
28,40

reward [verb]
to give something (e.g. a prize) for good work or behaviour

Associated:   reward (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of reward (noun) is money given for help in solving a crime, as in The police are offering a reward of $10,000 for information in connection with the disappearance of .. .
20,70

rigid [adjective]
strict, unbending

Associated:   rigidity (noun); rigidly (adverb)
Antonym: flexible

7,60

rise [noun]
to go up

Associated:   rise (verb)
Antonym: fall, sink

51,60

risk [verb]
to act in a way that might lead to danger or failure

Associated:   risk (noun); risky (adjective)
155,10

role [noun]
job or function

Note:   Some people like to spell role with a circonflex rΒle .
166,60

rotate [verb]
to turn or move (around)

Associated:   rotation (noun)
10,60

roughly [adverb]
about, approximately

Associated:   rough (adjective)
Antonym: exactly

Note:   Another common meaning of rough is not smooth, as in We had a very roughflight to New York.
19,80

route [noun]
the way to get to a place or a thing

Note:   Americans pronounce route to rhyme with out.Britons pronounce route to rhyme with boot.
29,20

royal [adjective]
of kings and queens

Associated:   royalty (noun)
16,40

ruin [verb]
to spoil or damage

Associated:   ruin (noun)
Note:   The ruins (noun) of a building is what remains of it, as in I love to explore the ancient ruins in Rome.
6,30

sample [noun]
example; a smaller number of a larger collection

Associated:   sample (verb)
Note:   If a doctor asks you for a sample she wants you to give blood or urine.
98,60

sane [adjective]
reasonable; not mad

Associated:   sanity (noun)
Antonym: insane

1,30

satisfactory [adjective]
OK; enough

Associated:   satisfaction (noun); satisfy (verb)
Antonym: unsatisfactory

15,30

scale [noun]
extent

Note:   Another common meaning of scale is the key that shows distances on a map , as in The scale on this map is 1:30,000.
98,20

scarce [adjective]
rare, not abundant

Associated:   scarcity (noun)
Antonym: common, abundant

Note:   The adverb scarcely means barely, hardly , as in She is scarcely able to speak a word of English.
5,00

schedule [noun]
timetable

Note:   Some people (particularly Britons) pronounce schedule as shhedule; others (Americans) as skedule.
240,00

scheme [noun]
plan. idea, project

Associated:   scheme (verb)
31,20

scope [noun]
extent, range

48,40

section [noun]
part

232,00

sector [noun]
part; area

31,80

secure [adjective]
safe

Associated:   security (noun); securely (adverb); secure (verb)
Antonym: insecure

36,00

seek [verb]
to look for or want

89,40

seldom [adverb]
rare

Associated:  
Antonym: frequently

6,00

select [verb]
to choose

Associated:   selection (noun)
219,90

separate [verb]
to pull or put apart

Associated:   separation (noun)
Antonym: join

130,50

sequence [noun]
the order in which things are arranged or happen

Associated:   sequential (adjective)
62,60

series [noun]
a number of things, one after the other

197,20

serious [adjective]
severe, large

Associated:   seriousness (noun); seriously (adverb)
Antonym: trivial

46,40

service [noun]
work done for others; help

352,00

settle [verb]
to solve a problem or dispute

Associated:   settlement (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of settle is to remain in a place, as in We like Germany and have decided to settle here.
15,60

several [adjective]
many (about 6 or seven)

175,50

severe [adjective]
serious, harsh

Associated:   severity (noun); severely (adverb)
Antonym: mild

28,40

share [verb]
to exchange; to give

Associated:   share (noun)
195,30

shift [noun]
change

Associated:   shift (verb)
40,20

shortage [noun]
lack; an amount which is less than needed

Associated:  
Antonym: surplus

8,30

shrink [verb]
to get smaller

Associated:   shrinkage (noun)
6,90

significant [adjective]
important, large

Associated:   significance (noun); significantly (adverb)
Antonym: insignificant

89,70

signify [verb]
to mean; to be a sign of

Associated:   sign (noun); signification (noun)
4,50

similar [adjective]
like, almost the same as

Associated:   similarity (noun); similarly (adverb)
Antonym: different

111,80

simply [adverb]
completely; just; only

77,80

simultaneously [adverb]
at the same time

Associated:   simultaneous (adjective)
22,50

since [conjuntion]
because

Note:   A more common meaning of since , of course, is in the time after .., as in I have lived in Germany since 1986.
136,00

site [noun]
place

Associated:   site (verb)
666,00

situation [noun]
circumstances

75,80

skill [noun]
ability (e.g. in sport or music)

Associated:   skilful (adjective)
Note:   Skilfull is also spelled skillful.
33,40

slight [adjective]
small

Associated:   slightly (adverb)
Antonym: considerable

11,60

smooth [adjective]
easy, unproblematic

Associated:   smoothly (adverb)
17,70

society [noun]
a group of people; the entire group of people living in a country

Associated:   social (adjective)
204,00

sole [adjective]
only

Associated:   solely (adverb)
13,50

solve [verb]
to find an answer

Associated:   solution (noun)
Note:   A near synonym of solve is resolve (noun: resolution) . Example: They were able to resolve the conflict by each making compromises.
68,40

somewhat [adverb]
quite, rather

31,50

sound [adjective]
good; strong

Associated:   soundly (adverb)
Note:   The most common meaning of sound (noun) is noise, as in I like to hear sound of birds singing.
55,80

source [noun]
where something begins, where you can find something

188,40

spare [adjective]
not needed

Associated:   spare (noun); spare (verb)
6,30

specify [verb]
to state exactly

Associated:   specification (noun); specifically (adverb); specific (adjective)
51,00

speculate [verb]
to think and talk about (often future events)

Associated:   speculation (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of speculate is to gamble money on the finance markets, as in Many people who speculated lost all their money in the dot.com bust.
6,10

speed [noun]
how quickly something moves or changes

Associated:   speed (verb)
60,60

sphere [noun]
area of interest

Note:   Another common meaning of sphere is ball, as in The earth is a sphere.
13,00

spontaneous [adjective]
happening without warning or planning

Associated:   spontaneity (noun); spontaneously (adverb)
5,90

spread [verb]
to move (over a wider area)

Associated:   spread (noun)
63,30

stable [adjective]
not changing; not easy to change

Associated:   stability (noun)
Antonym: unstable

Note:   Another common meaning of stable is building for horses, as in She left the stable door open and the horses escaped.
27,40

staff [noun]
people working at a particular place (particularly an office or school)

Associated:   staff (verb)
470,00

stage [noun]
period of time, part of a process

Note:   Another common meaning of stage is where a play takes place, as in The actors ran from the stage when a fire broke out.
67,60

standard [noun]
quality

133,60

state [noun]
condition, situation

Note:   Another common meaning of state is country, nation, government, as in The state has no right to tell me what to do. (See also: statement)
580,00

statement [noun]
a spoken sentence or sentences (sometimes prepared in advance)

Associated:   state (verb)
176,60

statistic [noun]
mathematical number

Associated:   statistical (adjective); statistically (adverb)
Note:   This word is commonly used in the plural: statistics .
6,70

status [noun]
position, standing

151,40

steady [adjective]
gradual; without interruptions; firm

Associated:   steadily (adverb)
13,70

stereotype [noun]
a fixed idea about someone or something (often that is only partly true)

Associated:   stereotype (verb)
2,90

stimulate [verb]
to interest, make grow or encourage

Associated:   stimulation (noun); stimulating (adjective)
19,00

stipulate [verb]
to require

Associated:   stipulation (noun)
2,00

store [verb]
to put something in a place where it can be found and used later

Associated:   store (noun)
108,90

straightforward [adjective]
easy

Associated:  
Antonym: difficult

11,00

strain [verb]
to put under stress or make difficult

Associated:   strain (noun)
20,50

strategy [noun]
a plan for how to achieve a goal

Associated:   strategic (adjective)
67,80

stress [verb]
to emphasize; to say what is important

Associated:   stress (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of stress is pressure , as in She is under a lot of stress at the moment. She has three important exams next week.
70,50

strict [adjective]
hard, not changeable

Associated:   strictness (noun)
Antonym: lenient

13,10

strive [verb]
to work or try hard

Associated:   striving (noun)
20,00

structure [noun]
the way something is made or organized

Associated:   structural (adjective); structurally (adverb); structure (verb)
148,80

struggle [noun]
a fight, a difficult situation to be overcome

Associated:   struggle (verb)
22,60

subjective [adjective]
based on personal opinion or feeling

Associated:   subjectivity (noun); subjectively (adverb)
Antonym: objective

7,90

submit [verb]
to give; to send

Associated:   submission (noun)
206,10

subsequent [adjective]
next, following

Associated:   subsequently (adverb)
35,40

subsidize [verb]
to support financially

Associated:   subsidy (noun)
Note:   This word can also be spelled subsidise .
2,60

substantial [adjective]
large

Associated:   substantially (adverb)
32,70

substitute [noun]
a thing or person to take the place of another

Associated:   substitute (verb)
22,80

subtle [adjective]
not clear or strong

Associated:   subtlety (noun)
9,40

succeed [verb]
to do well

Associated:   success (noun); successful (adjective)
Antonym: fail

37,80

suffer [verb]
to experience something bad or painful

Associated:   suffering (noun)
28,70

sufficient [adjective]
enough

Associated:   sufficiently (adverb)
Antonym: insufficient

37,00

suggest [verb]
to say an idea; to recommend

Associated:   suggestion (noun)
105,90

suitable [adjective]
good for a particular job or purpose

Associated:   suitability (noun); suit (verb)
24,20

sum [noun]
an amount of money, total

Note:   A sum in mathematics class is a simple problem, as in Some children never really learn to do their sums.
44,40

summary [noun]
a short account of the most important details

Associated:   summarize (verb)
136,80

superficial [adjective]
done quickly and without enough thought; not thorough; trivial

3,00

superior [adjective]
better

Associated:   superiority (noun)
Antonym: inferior

Note:   Your superior (noun) is your boss.
22,20

supervise [verb]
to control; to watch over people doing something

Associated:   supervision (noun); supervisor (noun)
10,90

supplementary [adjective]
extra; additional

Associated:   supplement (noun); supplement (verb)
7,10

supply [noun]
provision, store

Associated:   supply (verb)
59,00

support [noun]
help

Associated:   support (verb); supportive (adjective)
398,00

suppose [verb]
to think, imagine

Associated:   supposition (noun)
Note:   If you are supposed to do something, then you have an obligation or duty to do it. Example: She was supposed to pick me up from the airport, but she forgot.
43,20

suppress [verb]
to hold back; to not allow to happen

Associated:   suppression (noun)
9,30

surface [noun]
the outside layer of an object

Associated:   surface (verb)
72,80

surplus [noun]
an amount that is more than needed or expected

Associated:  
Antonym: shortage

8,90

surround [verb]
to be, go or make all the way around

Associated:   surroundings (noun)
8,00

survey [noun]
questionnaire; information gained by questioning people or data

Associated:   survey (verb)
116,00

survive [verb]
to not die

Associated:   survival (noun); survivor (noun)
28,30

suspect [verb]
to believe

Note:   A suspect (noun) is a person who is believed to have committed a crime, as in Mr X. is a suspect in the current murder case. From this meaning the words suspicion, suspicious are derived.
22,20

suspend [verb]
to stop (often for a short time only)

Associated:   suspension (noun)
7,00

sustain [verb]
to keep going; to maintain

Associated:   sustenance (noun); sustainable(adjective); sustainability (noun)
22,20

symbol [noun]
a picture; the representation of an idea

Associated:   symbolize (verb)
23,20

symptom [noun]
sign (often of a disease or other problem)

Associated:   symptomatic (adjective); symptomize(verb)
4,80

target [noun]
aim, goal

Associated:   target (verb)
Note:   The target of someone with a gun or bow and arrow is what she or she is pointing at. Example: The Olympic biathlete missed the target by just 0,5mm.
60,00

task [noun]
job

82,00

technical [adjective]
to do with machines or the way things work

Associated:   technology (noun)
116,80

technique [noun]
a method of doing something

47,20

temporary [adjective]
for a short or limited time

Associated:   temporarily (adverb)
Antonym: permanent

Note:   A temp (= temporary) is someone who has a job for only a short time.
24,80

tend [verb]
to often behave in a certain way

Associated:   tendency (noun)
60,30

term [noun]
a word or expression

Note:   Another common meaning of term is period of time, as in The government is now entering its last term of office.
194,20

terminate [verb]
to finish or stop

Associated:   termination (noun)
Antonym: commence

Note:   A terminal is the last stop of a bus or train, as in Kings Cross is a large terminal in North London.
13,00

territory [noun]
land; area (of interest)

14,60

theory [noun]
idea or hypothesis

Associated:   theorize (verb); theoretical (adjective)
144,20

thereby [adverb]
by doing this

Note:   The adverb *thereby corresponds to the conjunction whereby. The first example sentence below could be rewritten, as She said sorry to the teacher whereby she avoided a detention.
20,80

therefore [adverb]
so, as a result

86,60

thorough [adjective]
complete and careful

Associated:   thoroughness (noun); thoroughly (adverb)
Antonym: superficial

13,70

though [conjuntion]
although, even though, but

61,30

threaten [verb]
to warn or show signs of danger

Associated:   threat (noun); threatening (adjective)
Note:   If you threaten someone you say you will harm them in some way, as in She threatened to hit me if I didn't give her my iPod.
10,20

thus [adverb]
so

93,60

tolerate [verb]
to allow to happen; to bear

Associated:   tolerance(noun); tolerant (adjective)
9,70

tool [noun]
something used to do a job

82,00

topic [noun]
area of interest or discussion

113,00

tough [adjective]
difficult, strong

Associated:   toughness (noun)
12,80

trace [noun]
sign; indication; evidence

Associated:   trace (verb)
Note:   To trace something is to describe the development of something. It also means to look for, as in The police are desperately trying to trace the missing child.
22,00

trade [verb]
to exchange products or services

Associated:   trade (noun)
106,50

tradition [noun]
a usual, old-time way of doing things

Associated:   traditional (adjective); traditionally (adverb)
44,40

train [verb]
to teach someone how to do a job

Associated:   training (noun); trainer (noun)
53,10

trait [noun]
characteristic; aspect

5,50

transfer [verb]
to move to a different place or job

Associated:   transfer (noun)
193,50

transform [verb]
to change (often completely)

Associated:   transformation (noun)
33,60

transition [noun]
a move from one (place, time, etc.) to another

Associated:   transitional (adjective)
53,00

transmit [verb]
to send or convey

Associated:   transmission (noun)
15,00

treatment [noun]
way of handing a person, situation or problem (often of illness)

Associated:   treat (verb)
97,60

trend [noun]
pattern of continuing behaviour

26,80

trigger [verb]
to (cause to) start

Associated:   trigger (noun)
Note:   The trigger (noun) of a gun the small metal lever that is pulled to fire the bullet.
16,10

trivial [adjective]
not important

Associated:   triviality (noun)
8,80

trust [verb]
to believe that someone or something will be or work as promised

Associated:   trust (noun); trustworthy (adjective); trusting (adjective)
Antonym: distrust

72,60

truth [noun]
actual reason or fact

Associated:   truthful (adjective); true(adjective)
37,00

typical [adjective]
usual

Associated:   typically (adverb); typify (verb)
42,00

ultimate [adjective]
final or most important

Associated:   ultimatum (noun); ultimately (adverb)
24,30

undergo [verb]
to receive or experience

14,80

underlie [verb]
to be the reason for or cause of something

6,40

undertake [verb]
to (plan to) do

Associated:   undertaking (noun)
16,90

uniform [adjective]
having the same qualities

Associated:   uniformity (noun)
24,30

unique [adjective]
single, unusual, one of a kind

Associated:   uniquely (adverb); uniqueness (noun)
78,90

unite [verb]
to bring or get together

Associated:   union(noun); unity (noun)
7,70

universally [adverb]
all over the world; by everyone

Associated:   universal (adjective)
4,10

unless [conjuntion]
if not

44,40

urban [adjective]
of the town or city

Associated:  
Antonym: rural

50,10

urgent [adjective]
very important, must be done immediately

Associated:   urgency (noun); urgently (adverb)
7,20

utilize [verb]
to use

Associated:   utilization (noun); utility (noun)
39,90

utter [adjective]
complete, total

Associated:   utterly (adjective)
Note:   Another meaning of utter (verb) is to say , as in He didn't utter a word when I said I was leaving him. (noun; utterance)
2,40

vague [adjective]
not clear or strong

Associated:   vagueness (noun); vaguely (adverb)
5,20

valid [adjective]
correct

Associated:   validity (noun)
Antonym: invalid

Note:   An invalid (noun) is something who is unable to move around like healthy people (perhaps they need to be in a wheelchair).
40,60

valuable [adjective]
worth a lot of money; important

Associated:   value (noun); value (verb)
40,00

various [adjective]
several, of different kinds

Associated:   variety (noun)
147,30

vary [noun]
to change or be different

Associated:   variation (noun); varied (adjective)
49,60

vast [adjective]
very large

Associated:   vastly (adverb); vastness (noun)
Antonym: small

19,80

verbal [adjective]
to do with words and language (especially the spoken language)

Associated:   verbally (adverb)
15,00

verify [verb]
to prove or claim the truth

Associated:   verification (noun); veracity (noun)
41,40

version [noun]
form

220,00

victory [noun]
win

Associated:   victor (noun); victorious (adjective)
Antonym: defeat

22,80

view [verb]
to have an opinion

Associated:   view (noun)
Note:   Another common meaning of view (noun) is what you can see, as in I love the view from my bedroom window. View is also a simple synonym for look at
570,00

violate [verb]
to spoil or break

Associated:   violation (noun)
15,00

virtually [adverb]
almost

Associated:   virtual (adjective)
18,90

visual [adjective]
to do with sight and seeing

Associated:   vision (noun); visually (adverb); visualize (verb)
60,80

vital [adjective]
very important

Associated:   vitally (adjective)
23,60

volume [noun]
amount

Note:   Another common meaning of volume is sound level , as in Can you please turn down the volume of the TV. I'm trying to do my homework.
99,00

voluntary [adjective]
done freely; from personal choice

Associated:   volunteer (noun); volunteer (verb); voluntarily (adverb)obligatory
Antonym: obligatory, compulsory

14,00

warn [verb]
to notify (of possible danger)

Associated:   warning (noun)
7,90

whereas [conjuntion]
.. in contrast

Note:   An synonym for whereas is whilst, as in I like coffee whilst my husband prefers tea.
18,50

whether [conjuntion]
if

80,20

while [conjuntion]
.. used to contrast to people or things; although

Note:   An alternative spelling for this meaning of while is whilst. The most common meaning of while is during the time that, as in I did my homework while my father cooked dinner.
158,00

widespread [adjective]
common

14,80

willing [adjective]
happy or prepared to do something

Associated:   willingness (noun); willingly (adverb)
Antonym: unwilling, reluctant

29,10

wise [adjective]
intelligent; sensible

Associated:   wisdom (noun)
Antonym: unwise, foolish

18,90

withdraw [verb]
to go back or take away

Associated:   withdrawal (noun)
20,00

worth [preposition]
useful; having a point or purpose

Note:   Another common meaning of *worth is having a (money) value , as in This painting is *worth more money than I earn in a year.
29,50

yet [conjuntion]
but

Note:   The most common use of yet is as an adverb , as in Have you done your homework yet?
66,50

yield [verb]
to produce

Associated:   yield (noun)
50,40

Copyright Paul Shoebottom 2008
http://esl.fis.edu