Academic words: Printable listing - In ascending order of frequency
Most teachers are averse to students wearing hats or chewing gum in the classroom.
Doctors these days are not averse to advising patients about poor lifestyle choices such as smoking or lack of exercise.
While I am not in favor of teaching creationism in public schools, I am also not averse to having it presented and examined.
The bulk of the urban districts, particularly in the Northern states, were totally averse to this development.
Associated: aversion (noun) Note: Do not confuse averse with adverse (noun: adversity) which means negative. Example; The high cost of oil is sure to have an adverse effect on profits. 1,20
disturb[verb] to interrupt, stop from working
This will be a reading lesson. Please do not disturb it by trying to talk.
The angry shouts from demonstrators at the back of the hall did not disturb the politician in his speech.
Doubt and mistakes must not be allowed to disturb us because it is from them that we learn.
They further alleged that the removal of the soil would disturb the quality of the district's drinking water.
Associated: disturbance (noun) 1,20
sane[adjective] reasonable; not mad
The school cafeteria has made the sane decision not to offer hamburgers, hot dogs and French fries to the younger students .
The government needs to decide on a sane response to the continuing violent demonstrations.
When Penn State decided not to cancel classes, it seemed like a safe and sane decision.
There were many sane but complex reasons why he gave up his well-paid job.
Associated: sanity (noun) Antonym: insane 1,30
frustrate[verb] to stop or prevent
Badly- behaved students often frustrate the learning of other students in the class.
Demonstrators tried to frustrate the opening of the new airport runway.
She accepted the arduous task of vice president, according to the papers, saying that she could not frustrate the will of the people.
They must not be allowed to frustrate the emergence of a competitive market economy.
Associated: frustration (noun) Note: Common derivations of this word are frustrated / frustrating to describe feelings of not being able to do or have what you want. Example: My email keeps breaking down. It's so frustrating. 1,50
precaution[noun] something done to avoid danger, harm or problems
The school has installed emergency buttons in each classroom as a precaution against intruders.
Doctors are advising older patients to have an injection as a precaution against influenza this winter.
Even though you may know your housemates well, you should always take the precaution to lock the door. Windows should also be secured.
Every necessary precaution has been taken to provide up-to-date, accurate information in this website.
Note: It is common to see this word used in the plural: precautions . Example: The police failed to take the necessary precautions to prevent fighting between the two groups of demonstrators . 1,60
expel[verb] to drive or push out
If a student is caught with drugs in the building, the school will expel him or her.
The police were unable to expel the demonstrators from the town square.
The court concluded that schools could not expel disabled students whose disability causes their disruptive conduct.
His lungs were filled in an instant with a great volume of driven air which he could not expel.
Associated: expulsion (noun) 1,70
exaggerate[verb] to "overstate" the truth; to say something is bigger or better than it really is
Do not exaggerate! You're only 10 years old. You couldn't have read thousands of books!
It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of the internet.
Advertising marketed directly to the consumer may minimize the risks and exaggerate the benefits of medications.
We should not exaggerate the costs, minimize the benefits of what we have already achieved, or downplay the risk of failure to persevere.
Associated: exaggeration (noun) 1,70
You will need to get your parents' assent for your attendance at the sex education classes.
Governments cannot govern without the broad assent of the people.
Counselors will begin on-going sessions with a student only after having obtained signed assent of the student and signed consent of the parent.
If children of seven years and older will be included in the study, an assent agreement is necessary.
Associated: assent (verb) Antonym: dissent 1,70
magnify[verb] to make or show larger
The fact that he can only speak a little English is sure to magnify his already severe learning problems.
The new version of Microsoft's Internet Explorer lets you magnify pictures by using the mouse ball and the Control key.
Therefore, if a farm has efficiency problems, simply expanding the operation may just magnify the problems.
Television and the other news media have helped to magnify the person and the institution of the presidency.
Associated: magnification (noun) 1,80
entitle[verb] to give the right to do something
Buying a lunch ticket in advance will entitle you to a free drink.
A regular driving license does not entitle the license holder to drive a bus or a truck.
This validation will identify him/her as a "special student" and will entitle him/her to the use of additional university facilities, such as the union building and the gym, and to free admissions for selected lectures.
The Supreme Court held that the free exercise of religion did not entitle an Orthodox Jew to wear a yarmulke when he was on duty as an officer of law.
Many birds migrate south in the winter to find warmer temperatures.
People are more likely to migrate in times of war or economic poverty.
Teachers did not migrate because of students behaving badly but rather because student behavior was not adequately managed.
Workers will migrate to where wages are higher.
Associated: migrant (noun); migration (noun) Note: Migrate is the basis of common words such as immigrate (come into a country) / immigrant / immigration - emigrate (leave a country) / emigrant / emigration. 7,10
The student who had forgotten his homework was fortunate that the teacher was absent that day.
Not everyone is fortunate enough to have internet access at home.
One fortunate result of rainy weather is that the dust is regularly washed off, reducing problems with the machinery.
Our very privilege makes us aware of our need to do the utmost toward improving the situation of our not-so- fortunate neighbors.
Most schools do a lot to warn their students of the dangers of smoking.
It is not enough to warn children not to play with fireworks. It should be illegal for children to buy them.
He was also faced with difficult questions about the university's handling of the emergency and whether it did enough to warn students.
These drug companies were extremely negligent in that they failed to warn consumers of the potential dangers associated with the use of their products.
Associated: warning (noun) 7,90
abnormal[adjective] not normal, unusual
Is there anything wrong with him? His behaviour has been very abnormal recently.
We got some very abnormal results in our science experiment. I think the thermometer was not working correctly.
Abnormal results do not diagnose birth defects, they just suggest that follow-up tests are necessary for further clarification.
Drug abusers also show prefrontal cortex abnormalities; it is possible that abnormal behaviour may be linked to drug use.
Associated: abnormality (noun) Antonym: normal 7,90
fragment[noun] part of something
I found a fragment of her homework on the cafeteria. It looked like half the school had stepped on it!
Archaeologists can often come to an understanding of people who lived long ago just by examining the fragment of a pot or bone.
To test for a fragment sentence, see if it can stand alone and still mean something.
Van Haarlem also said the team had found a large fragment of what may have been a ceramic baboon statue.
Associated: fragment (verb); fragmentary (adjective) 7,90
surround[verb] to be, go or make all the way around
The Roman walls of Oberursel still exist and surround almost all of the old town center.
Politicians realize that they can't know everything, so they surround themselves with people who can advise them.
The fat cells that surround coronary arteries may play a central and previously unrecognized role in the development of cardiovascular disease.
Most importantly, she was able to surround herself with friends and acquaintances of similar interests.
He questioned the security coordination that enabled the terrorists to accomplish all their preparatory work. The authorities had failed to surround the school for three days.
Associated: surroundings (noun) 8,00
elaborate[adjective] detailed; complex
There's no need to give an elaborate answer, Two or three short sentences will be enough.
The government has announced elaborate plans to reduce long-term unemployment.
The former assumes a single step - that life originated on Earth - ahead of the more elaborate idea that life formed elsewhere and was subsequently transported to Earth.
Perhaps the most elaborate example of an arthropod joint, indeed one of the most complex skeletal structures known, is the wing hinge of insects.
Associated: elaborately (adverb); elaboration (noun); elaborate (verb) Note: When elaborate is used as a verb, its second and last syllables are sounded strongly. When it is used as an adjective, only its second syllable is sounded strongly. 8,10
diminish[verb] to get smaller or less important
Her efforts have continued to diminish in the last few months. I think she may be having problems at home.
The amount of time that policeman spend on the streets must not diminish.
The cost of establishing links will diminish as improvements are made to the underlying communication infrastructure.
Although Katrina affected the material environment of Louisiana, it did not diminish the great spirit of the people here.
Associated: diminution (noun) 8,10
persuade[verb] to try and make someone do something or agree to something
I tried to persuade the parents to allow their daughter to go on the school trip, but they said no.
Doctors often fail in their attempt to persuade patients to stop smoking. The habit is too addictive.
The US, which by this time was paying most of France's war expenses, was unable to persuade the French to fight on.
Blair will need to persuade the Americans that Europeans will no longer permit Saddam to play games with the inspectors.
Only seniors have the privilege of using this room. You will have to wait until you are in grade 12.
The management is considering removing the salesmen's privilege to use company cars at the weekend for private purposes.
Access to the data network is both an essential tool for university life and work, and a valuable privilege.
He has lost the privilege of being himself. Immigration laws have required him to pretend to be somebody else.
definitely[adverb] certainly; without doubt
I'm sorry, but I will definitely not be able to come to the meeting next week.
You are definitely going to fail the course unless you start working harder.
A student enrolled in these types of courses really didn't get to know the instructor well and definitely did not feel any sense of community.
Attendance will not constitute a specific percentage of your final grade, but if you miss more than two classes you will definitely fail this course.
Associated: definite (adjective) 13,30
neutral[adjective] neither for nor against; neither positive nor negative
Most students are neutral about the suggestion to replace the blackboards with whiteboards.
Some countries, such as Switzerland, remained neutral in the last world war.
Consequently, the percentages will not sum to 100% because many students were neutral on the questions in the survey.
The use of gender- neutral language may seem unnecessary to some writers, but the consistent use of masculine pronouns leaves the impression that women could not be among the group to which the writer is referring.
Associated: neutrality (noun) 13,30
She was the sole student to get full marks in the test.
Some people have claimed that the sole reason for the invasion of Iraq was to gain control of the oil fields.
Thus, there is no question but that the donor intends this gift to be for the sole use of Princeton University.
However, no one criterion will be the sole reason for lack of admission to the program.
Associated: solely (adverb) 13,50
ban[verb] to prohibit or forbid
My parents have decided to ban me from eating in my room.
The government is considering whether to ban smoking in all public places.
Certain questions must be answered before it becomes politically feasible, or even necessary, to ban cellular phones.
Schwarzenegger said he wanted to ban junk food from school vending machines.
Associated: ban (noun) Antonym: permit 13,60
manufacture[verb] to produce (with machines)
The new factory near the school will manufacture parts for mobile phones.
China is able to manufacture goods cheaply because labour costs are low.
The tree responds this way because the tree needs to manufacture food again before it starves.
It is unclear whether this facility will be able to manufacture complete missiles or only some major component.
The dentist needed to extract my back tooth. It had become badly infected.
You should write this again to extract all the irrelevant details.
It seems that the mind cannot extract the necessary information from what is supplied to it.
We would probably become engaged in discussions from which we could not extract ourselves and therefore our freedom of action would be limited.
Associated: extraction (noun); extract (noun) Note: An extract is part of a text, as in Please read the extract on page 22 as homework. 15,50
perceive[verb] to see; to become aware of with one of the senses; to think
If you look carefully, you will perceive that the ice is starting to melt.
It is difficult to perceive how the government can hope to win the forthcoming election.
Close to 30% of students did not perceive it to be cheating to lie to an instructor about having an illness or some other emergency in order to extend a work deadline.
Many of the students were unable to perceive the relevance of the mathematics they had learned and so could not make use of it.
Associated: perception (noun) 15,50
anonymous[adjective] having no name or known author
The school received an anonymous email with complaints against one of the teachers.
In all democratic countries voting in government elections is anonymous.
Many of the faculty and students we talked with wanted to remain anonymous and asked that they not be listed by name in our report.
On December 4, 1955, the anonymous decision was made to boycott the bus system until they were treated with courtesy and black drivers could be hired.
Associated: anonymity (noun) 15,60
settle[verb] to solve a problem or dispute
The headmaster called a meeting to try to settle the dispute between the two teachers.
Only time will settle the debate about whether the earth really is warming up or not.
The University of Washington has agreed to settle a class-action lawsuit over faculty salaries.
After several failed attempts to settle the dispute by the efforts of the local community, the case was transferred to the City Community Court.
Associated: settlement (noun) Note: Another common meaning of settle is to remain in a place, as in We like Germany and have decided to settle here. 15,60
attribute[noun] characteristic; property
The main attribute of a good teacher is knowledge of his or her subject.
Honesty is not an attribute that most people associate with occupations such as politician or used-car salesman.
While mastery of both written and spoken English is considered to be an essential attribute, students with documented hearing, speech and other disabilities will be reasonably accommodated in accordance with law.
Ambition was not an attribute of the female characters in his earlier films.
Note: As a noun attribute is stressed on the first syllable. The word also exists as a verb (stressed on the second syllable) and means to say who or what you think is the cause of something, as in I attribute his poor behaviour to current problems at home. 15,60
occasion[noun] time (opportunity)
On the one occasion I got to school early, the building was closed because of a fire alarm.
The manager used the occasion of the opening of the new factory block to make a speech about future developments.
Sometimes anger is appropriate, but we must be careful not to be too angry, or angry with the wrong person, or angry on the wrong occasion.
This week's anniversary of the US-led war against Iraq is an appropriate occasion to ask: Are Americans safer than we were a year ago?
enlarge[verb] to make larger
We are going to enlarge this photograph to poster size and put it on the classroom wall.
The university has decided to enlarge its modern languages department to meet the growing interest.
The village system made it almost impossible to enlarge the amount of land available for pasture.
It was an extremely conservative institution, and did not enlarge its business to any extent.
Standing on the table is certainly no way to behave in the cafeteria!
One of the most important jobs of a parent is to teach the child how to behave in different situations.
What might cause my computer to behave oddly and even insult me, and how can I fix it?
His research helped establish that identical DNA sequences may behave differently depending on context and condition.
Associated: behaviour (noun) 16,60
attain[verb] to get, achieve
If you work harder, you will attain a better grade next term.
To attain the highest positions in American politics it is necessary to come from a rich family.
What skills did you attain in the process of completing your course?
Unfortunately, some states will not be able to attain the new ozone standard, partly because of pollution not originating in their state.
Associated: attainment (noun) 16,70
accordingly[adverb] appropriate to; in compliance with
Those are the rules of the school and I expect you to behave accordingly.
If you change your address or place of study, please amend your log-in details accordingly.
This page has moved. Please update your bookmark accordingly!
The procession enters the arena promptly at 9:30 a.m., so plan your time accordingly.
margin[noun] amount; distance
The margin between success and failure is often very small.
The government won the election by a huge margin.
The faculty is, by a wide margin, the most productive, widely cited, and influential law faculty in the country.
President Bush will leave the next president with absolutely no margin of error in dealing with some of the most critical challenges this country has faced.
Note: The margin of a piece of paper is the 2-3 centimeter strip down the left or right side of the paper. Teachers like to write comments in the margin of students' written work. 16,80
undertake[verb] to (plan to) do
Teachers undertake to improve student scores in standardized tests by doing 5 minutes practice at the start of every lesson.
In my opinion the government should undertake more to prevent young people drinking and driving.
Students are leaving this week for the Dominican Republic to undertake extensive nurse practitioner training.
One of the most common laments we hear from instructor is that they can't get their students to undertake substantial revisions.
Associated: undertaking (noun) 16,90
The test will be a mixture of reading comprehension passages and short writing texts.
In order to get people to change unhealthy habits, the government needs to use a mixture of the carrot and the stick.
The results represented an unusual mixture of old and modern practices.
The objective is to find the right mixture of materials that will result in the creation of clear electrical signals.
Associated: mix (verb) 16,90
revise[verb] to change (in order to improve)
The third stage of the writing process is when you revise your work. This means that you make any necessary changes to its structure or content.
The government has decided to revise it proposals to increase income tax after massive demonstrations on the streets of the capital city.
The committee expects that as NOAA moves forward it will have to revise the plan on a regular basis to incorporate new understanding.
It is often necessary to revise a mathematical model several times in the course of an urban operations research study.
Associated: revision (noun) Note: Another common meaning of revision (for British students) is the work done in preparation for exams, as in Sorry, I can't play tennis today. I haven't finished my revision. 16,90
interfere[verb] to prevent; to harm
He has a heavy accent but this does not interfere with understanding what he means.
Stopping work to look after a new-born child must not be allowed to interfere with a woman's career chances.
Storage of personal information not related to university business must be limited and must not interfere in any way with the storage and maintenance of university data.
Errors in grammar and vocabulary may, but do not always, interfere with comprehensibility.
Associated: interference (noun) Note: Another common meaning of interfere is to involve oneself in a situation where one's involvement is unwanted, as in Please don't interfere. It's none of your business! 17,00
evolve[verb] to develop (into something better)
It is interesting to think about how teaching will evolve under the influence of digital technologies.
The new manager needs time to evolve her own style of leadership.
Howard has many chances to evolve into a better father and husband, but he fails to do so.
While Dr. Robergs and I had a brief discussion early on about a print copy of the journal, for may different reasons the idea did not evolve.
Associated: evolution (noun) Note: Charles Darwin is associated with the theory of evolution . 17,10
Occasionally I come to school by car, but most often I take the bus.
Doctors occasionally make mistakes which can have serious or even fatal consequences for their patients.
50% of the students indicated they Rarely, Very Rarely, or Never ask questions during class with 45% indicating they only occasionally asked questions.
The work involves some lifting and bending, and occasionally requires travel away from the normal duty station.
Associated: occasional (adjective) 17,20
praise[verb] to express approval about something someone has done
Some students feel embarrassed when teachers praise them for good work in class.
It is fair to praise the government for their successful efforts to reduce unemployment among older people.
Remember to praise your child when he behaves appropriately.
We should never praise or blame any person on account of outward actions that are common to all; but only on account of their principles.
Associated: praise (noun) 17,20
induce[verb] to make happen; to force
It seems that nothing will induce her to get to class on time.
Sitting too long in front of a computer may induce headaches or back problems.
Conversely, rising wage rates often induce workers to try to work fewer hours as they become rich enough to afford more leisure.
He rightly concludes that the end of the Cold War failed to induce significant changes in the Horn of Africa or to improve the mutual security of states.
Associated: induction (noun) 17,30
compile[verb] to put together (often in a list
The school plans to compile a list of the local doctors who can speak English.
The committee was asked to compile a report listing the reasons in favour of invading Iraq.
Students will undertake comprehensive analysis of several works and will compile a database of quality literature.
If you decide to apply, you will need to compile a full application including: cover sheet, goals and plan letter, and project statement.
Associated: compilation (noun) 17,40
comprise[verb] to be made up of; to include
Your composition must comprise an introduction, a conclusion and three body paragraphs.
Immigrants comprise more than 20% of the total population.
The project itself may grow out of course work, but it must comprise achievement that is over and above regular course activities.
The document was intended to comprise everything from minerals, through the kingdom of plants, to the highest animals.
exploit[verb] to use (sometimes in a negative way)
Some people exploit poor immigrants - employing them as house cleaners for very low pay.
Governments are considering how to exploit the vast mineral resources buried under the ice in Antarctica.
Library and information science students must be taught how to exploit the resources that will allow them to anticipate the future and avoid becoming irrelevant as information professionals.
To exploit these opportunities, information systems will need to sense and act as well as compute.
Associated: exploitation (noun) 17,60
exclude[verb] to leave out; opposite of include
The new law will exclude unmarried mothers.
We should not exclude the possibility that house prices will begin to fall.
The researchers did not exclude people with known chronic disease from their study.
He said the debate now should exclude events of the past and the focus should be on what the UN, the US and Iraq could do to achieve the results.
Associated: exclusion (noun) Antonym: include 17,70
smooth[adjective] easy, unproblematic
He has made smooth progress all year and should have no trouble passing his exams.
For some older people the transition to new technologies has not been very smooth.
Miller's path to UCSC was far from smooth, but her focus and determination kept her moving toward her goal.
The Political Bureau will work to ensure the smooth progress of the reform of the administrative system.
Associated: smoothly (adverb) 17,70
deny[verb] to refuse ( responsibility for doing or saying something); to say that something is not correct
They still deny copying the work from the internet, but I ran a Google search and found it immediately.
The government was unable to deny that it was considering invading North Korea.
He certainly could not deny the existence of major problems.
The Committee will deny the request for disability payment if the disability is not adequately documented.
Associated: denial (noun) 17,80
adjacent[adjective] next to
The computer lab is adjacent to the library.
You will find reference books on this shelf and the adjacent ones.
Bradley Hall provides backyard access to the lakeshore path, and tennis courts are adjacent to the building for your recreational enjoyment.
To accurately determine mass balance, stakes were placed in the adjacent clean ice areas of the glacier.
Note: In sentences 2 and 4 below adjacent is being used as an adjective; in sentences 1 and 3 it is used as a preposition and must be followed by the word to. 17,80
artificial[adjective] not real or natural
People who suffer from hay fever cannot have real flowers in their house. They have artificial ones instead.
The study of how computers are similar to human brains is called artificial intelligence or AI.
In the heat of election campaigning, it is in no-one's interest to impose an artificial crisis upon the economy.
This is an artificial example to illustrate how the method works. In real data, the sequences are much longer, and there's no mistaking a match.
Samuel Huang, a professor of chemistry and materials science, has created an artificial tendon out of biodegradable materials.
Associated: artificially (adverb) Antonym: real 17,80
prime[adjective] most important
The prime advantage of a strong academic vocabulary is that it helps you to read school textbooks more efficiently.
The prime achievement of the government in its 5 years in office was to reduce child poverty.
Illegal immigration is not the prime reason so many poor young blacks are on the streets and why some turn to gangs, guns and drug dealing.
The Morningside Heights area in New York is a prime example of what Jacobs feels should not be done for city rebuilding.
Associated: primarily (adverb) Note: A close synonym of prime is primary, as in Passing this test is my primary concern. 18,00
hierarchy[noun] organizational structure (e.g. showing who works for whom)
Many teachers are happier at a lower position in the school hierarchy. They do not want the stress that comes with the top jobs.
Some organizations have tried to exist without a clear hierarchy, but in most cases people want to know who their boss is.
He was inspired by the dreams and disappointments of those individual schoolteachers who dared to challenge the hierarchy and follow their own visions toward a better future.
There is a sharp contrast between Japan's fairly rigid hierarchy of national and private universities with the United States, which has a wider variety of institutions.
Associated: hierarchical (adjective) 18,00
Your answer should include three discrete causes of the disaster.
Not all scientists agree that thought disorder and language disorder are discrete problems.
Discussion and analysis in this area has covered a number of discrete issues, including the effect of shifting trade patterns on employment levels.
Hopkins argues that the district court committed three discrete errors in determining his sentence.
regulate[verb] to control
We need to regulate entry to the cafeteria so that not all students are trying to buy a meal at the same time.
Some people say that drugs like cannabis should be made legal to allow the government to regulate its sale.
For the first time in history, the federal government will regulate college and university admissions.
We need to regulate access to new lands made possible by road expansion.
Associated: regulation (noun) 18,20
convey[verb] to pass on to another person (often by speaking)
Can you please convey this letter to your parents?
The director planned to convey the information to the workforce at the next general assembly.
In general, when you paraphrase, you use about the same number of words to convey the idea that the writer uses in the text.
However, the video does not convey much real information; it was also not very emotionally compelling.
moderate[adjective] not very much; not very strong; not extreme
I can survive on a moderate income. I don't need lots of money.
The government has only had moderate success in reducing the number of unemployed people.
Yet Bush also has adopted other, more moderate policy positions on guns and gun control.
Overpraising a person's moderate achievements can be just as discriminatory as undervaluing them.
She says she's not a very good pianist, but I know that the contrary is true and she's just being modest.
The director was not prepared to even listen to ideas contrary to his own.
The results on the tests are contrary to expectations.
A wife's going out to work is not deemed a violation of her marital obligations if her working is not contrary to her family's interests.
Associated: contrary (adjective) Note: A useful expression is on the contrary as in I thought you didn't like German food. - On the contrary. I think it's delicious. 20,20
impose[verb] to force; to require to happen
The school has decided to impose a ban on smoking anywhere on campus. This also applies to teachers.
The government plans to impose heavier punishment for dropping litter in the streets.
Sometimes it is necessary to impose a limit on the number of solutions searched for, since in general the number of such solutions could be infinite.
In most of Africa, for example, weaker institutions have failed to impose restrictions on rulers and undemocratic power politics has been employed.
Associated: imposition (noun) 20,30
destroy[verb] to break or damage completely
Some young people destroy their lives when they become addicted to drugs..
She will destroy her chances of attending university if she doesn't start working harder.
Major Smith occupied the city as ordered but was unable to destroy the bridge, lacking both a drill and powder.
Melting glaciers will destroy Alpine ski resorts within 45 years, says report.
Associated: destruction (noun) 20,30
strain[verb] to put under stress or make difficult
Teachers fear that the problems in the Middle East may strain the relationship between some of the Arab and Israeli students at the school.
The Education Department's increased demand for paperwork will strain the patience and good will of teachers.
This may strain relationships between children and parents, and necessitate the involvement of child welfare services.
We had disagreed strongly over politics before, and while these arguments did not strain our friendship in the least, I wished to avoid potential conflict.
Associated: strain (noun) 20,50
diagram[noun] a type of picture or chart
The diagram was unclear. It had been hand-drawn and then copied using weak ink.
If you are trying to understand the instructions of a new piece of equipment like a camera, it helps to have a diagram to look at.
Visit our web page Phases of the Moon for a more detailed explanation and a clear diagram that shows the phases of our moon.
The study included a diagram of the main concepts of the authors' model on connecting children with nature and community.
passage[noun] a piece of written or spoken text
This passage in your writing doesn't make sense. What are you trying to say?
There was a passage at the end of Obama's speech that caused his audience to jump up and start clapping.
Looking up all the key words in an important passage should be considered a background check for all literary analysis.
The passage was not visible in its entirety on the computer screen.
reward[verb] to give something (e.g. a prize) for good work or behaviour
If you work hard all lesson, I will reward you by letting you go to lunch five minutes early.
The government should not reward young unmarried mothers by giving them free housing.
The Program is designed to reward researchers whose ISBM-supported work appears in the academic literature.
A close study of this volume will reward any reader.
The grant is not a sufficient reward for the excellence and hard work of this faculty and staff.
High school students who have completed this difficult novel deserve a reward.
Associated: reward (noun) Note: Another common meaning of reward (noun) is money given for help in solving a crime, as in The police are offering a reward of $10,000 for information in connection with the disappearance of .. . 20,70
thereby[adverb] by doing this
She said sorry to the teacher and thereby avoided a detention.
The government has increased the tax on petrol, thereby making itself very unpopular with motorists.
The study of Growth and Development can help us to know a person more thoroughly and thereby be better doctors.
She rejects, thereby, traditional feminine ideals of marriage and proper behavior.
Note: The adverb *thereby corresponds to the conjunction whereby. The first example sentence below could be rewritten, as She said sorry to the teacher whereby she avoided a detention. 20,80
incident[noun] happening; event
There was an unpleasant incident on the playground yesterday when a fight started between two groups of students.
A dangerous incident took place on the border between Israel and Egypt.
Individuals should report the incident to a faculty or staff member at the university with whom they are comfortable.
In the Fall of 1998, there was an incident at a vehicle manufacturing plant involving a chemical shipment that was piped into the wrong tank.
merely[adverb] only, just, simply
She merely has to start attending school regularly. That will solve all her problems.
Not many people will change their habits or lifestyle merely because a government minister tells them it's a good idea.
Some assignments will be graded; others will merely receive a check-mark.
The trial court noted that the newspaper articles merely reported events and provided no editorial comment.
Associated: mere (adjective) 21,00
overlap[verb] to have in common; to cover part of
The picture overlaps the writing, which makes it difficult to read.
The last week of the tennis tournament will overlap the first week of the Olympic Games.
Check your schedule to be sure that class times do not overlap.
Remember that more than one factor may be the cause of a problem and that symptoms may often overlap in their appearance.
Associated: overlap (noun) 21,20
logical[adjective] making sense
The most logical reason for her poor test scores is that she didn't prepare herself well enough.
Doctors can give no logical explanation for the fact that so many people smoke even though they know how dangerous it is.
Matilda Thurston considered who was the most logical architect to design a proper campus for 200 students.
So, the possibility of humans bringing about significant evil is a logical consequence of having free will.
bias[noun] favouring one more than another, prejudice
Her family were persecuted by the Nazis, so it's no surprise that she shows bias against the Germans.
He has a strong bias against religion since suffering badly as a child in a strictly religious school.
APA offers specific recommendations for eliminating bias in language concerning race, disability, and sexuality.
Recent research shows bias against African American mothers of any class who don't work.
Associated: bias (verb); biased(adjective) 22,60
justify[verb] to give a reason for doing something
She was unable to justify her poor behaviour, but promised never to repeat it.
The government tried hard to justify its decision, but most people believe it was a serious error of judgment.
Mr. Bush cannot answer Sheehan's question and he cannot justify the war of aggression against Iraq.
The fact that speech is likely to result in some violence or in destruction of property is not enough to justify its suppression.
Associated: justification (noun) 22,80
substitute[noun] a thing or person to take the place of another
My regular mathematics teacher is sick so we have had a substitute for the last 2 weeks.
Scientists are working very hard to find a substitute for oil. They hope that one day cars will not pollute the atmosphere.
Such activity cannot be considered an adequate substitute for excellence in teaching and research.
Food irradiation can be an important tool in the war against illness and death from foodborne diseases. But it is not a substitute for comprehensive food safety programs throughout the food distribution system.
Associated: substitute (verb) 22,80
Thanks to his victory in the last Grand Prix of the season, Michael Schumacher won the World Championship.
At the same time, we believe that the victory over prejudice and hatred is achieved one person at a time.
They are never forgotten, those brief moments of splendid victory sandwiched between so many slices of rancid defeat.
Truman managed to win a narrow victory with 49.5 percent of the popular vote.
Those who had seen the march in Weimar at the 1926 party rally knew that National Socialism's march to victory could not be halted.
Associated: victor (noun); victorious (adjective) Antonym: defeat 22,80
attitude[noun] what someone thinks about something (and how their behaviour is influenced by their thinking)
The government has changed its attitude to nuclear power now that the cost of oil has been so high for the past few years.
What is your attitude to paying higher taxes in order that more schools and hospitals can be built?
A negative attitude toward yourself as a writer can make you anxious and lead you to "block."
This is the wrong attitude to have when considering the true dangers the culture of alcohol presents to the campus.
phenomenon[noun] a happening (often unusual or unexpected)
A phenomenon of nature is the way a stick seems to break when it is looked at under water.
It's not difficult to understand the Harry Potter phenomenon. Children like stories in which good and evil are clearly identified.
Distance learning is the most significant phenomenon occurring in higher education today.
The phenomenon was first observed in 1911 by Onnes, who noted that the resistance of a frozen mercury rod abruptly dropped to zero.
Note: The plural of phenomenon is phenomena. 23,00
reliable[adjective] can be trusted, does not let you down
My friend is very reliable ; if she says she will do something she never forgets it.
The government received information but did not consider it reliable and therefore decided to ignore it.
The first and only reliable line of defense against the acquisition or use of "suitcase nuclear weapons" by terrorists lies in the countries that possess such devices.
And finally, these estimates depend to some extent on those proven numbers and, as we've already seen, those numbers are not very reliable.
Do you know of any behavior that suggests that this student is not reliable, honest, or of good character?
The secret September 2002 Pentagon intelligence report concluded that there was "no reliable information" that Iraq had biological or chemical weapons.
It is crucial that you hand in the essay on time. If you don't, you will fail the course.
There is a crucial difference between the sports of mountain-climbing and table tennis. In the first you can get killed; in the second usually not.
TOEFL is not the most crucial part of the application, but it is an unavoidable part, which sometimes can be quite painful and time- consuming.
One crucial reason for this persistent problem is that Europe is trailing behind the US in labour productivity growth.
Associated: crucially (adverb) 23,10
symbol[noun] a picture; the representation of an idea
The symbol of the Olympic Games is five overlapping rings.
In most countries the symbol for the place where you can get information is the letter 'i'.
It may well be that the two towers on Boynton Hill will soon become a familiar symbol of innovation to educators and students across the country.
The ocean is a symbol of both freedom and escape.
Associated: symbolize (verb) 23,20
apparent[adjective] clear; obvious
It is apparent that you made no effort to learn the words for the test.
The soldier shot the dog for no apparent reason.
The need for regulation is quite evident today but was not apparent before the early years of the 20th century.
Kaiya reminds him that they have never been apart before, and it is apparent that Willow is experiencing feelings of guilt.
Note: Apparently means it seems, it appears; it is said, as in Apparently she has left her husband. 23,20
retreat[verb] to go back
The school decided to retreat when the angry parent said that he would contact his lawyer.
The government had to retreat from its starting position in the face of massive criticism in the newspapers.
He was not willing to retreat from previous legal commitments.
If God is invoked only to explain what science has not yet been able to explain, then as science advances, God must retreat.
Associated: retreat (noun) Antonym: advance 23,40
identical[adjective] exactly the same
We faced an identical problem over 10 years ago and couldn't solve it then, either.
Twins born from the same egg are called identical twins. They look exactly the same. Fraternal twins look a little different from each other.
Although consultation between students in solving problems is encouraged, identical answers will be considered plagiarized.
Dmitrieva and Kuptsova adopt an identical approach and understand culture as a realm of signs and meanings.
emerge[verb] to come out; to become known
It started to emerge after much questioning that the reasons for his bad behaviour were problems at home.
Unfortunately, many drug users emerge from prison only to find themselves back there a few months later. This is because they cannot find or keep a job, and need to steal to finance their drug-taking habits.
As people are defining a process or a problem, sometimes solutions emerge in that moment, in the detail of their description.
However, continuous and systematic research on the disaster did not emerge until after World War II.
Associated: emergence (noun) 23,40
vital[adjective] very important
If you want too be successful in an English language school or university it is vital that you learn academic words such as those on this website.
It is vital that we find better and cheaper ways to create energy than by burning coal or oil.
The ability to communicate accurately and effectively is a vital component of the curriculum.
The relationship between Christianity and the Enlightenment remains a vital issue in the history of Western civilization.
Associated: vitally (adjective) 23,60
interval[noun] a period of time
There will be an interval of 20 minutes in the middle of the school play.
The 7 Harry Potter books have been published at an interval of about 2-3 years.
Throughout the day, with a brief interval for lunch, he stared at the history project which was due the next morning.
It explores the lives of a group of adolescent boys in the interval between the departure of the Nazis and the arrival of the Communists.
considerable[adjective] very big; very much
If you want to start a business you need a considerable amount of money.
It took him a considerable time to finish the project.
We have a considerable amount of information about the National Forests in North Carolina on this web site.
Individuals with communication disorders have considerable difficulty making themselves clearly understood.
Associated: considerably (adverb) 23,70
automatic[adjective] happening by itself; happening naturally or usually
Many shops these days have automatic doors. They open as soon as you approach.
If you are caught drinking and driving, this results in an automatic driving ban of at least 3 months.
In this article I will discuss the possible use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) for training students to improve their accents in a foreign language.
At no point in our deliberations are numbers employed in a way that would trigger an automatic decision to offer or deny admission.
Associated: automatically (adverb) 23,80
admit[verb] to allow to enter
After much debate the school has decided to admit students with physical disabilities.
The government does not plan to admit any more immigrants unless they can prove that their life is in danger in their own country.
Each graduate receives three tickets that will admit guests into the auditorium.
In fact, most nations do not admit immigrants for permanent settlement.
Associated: admittance (noun); admission (noun) Note: Another common meaning of admit is to accept guilt or responsibility , as in She admitted plagiarzing her report. 24,10
suitable[adjective] good for a particular job or purpose
An orange pencil is not a suitable tool to do your homework with.
A small apartment in the middle of a busy city is not a suitable place to keep a large dog.
He also showed conclusively that this was not a suitable procedure for patients suffering from depression or anxiety.
Lack of knowledge is not a suitable reason for failure to comply with regulations.
Associated: suitability (noun); suit (verb) 24,20
ultimate[adjective] final or most important
The ultimate goal of teaching is to teach students how to teach themselves.
The ultimate authority in the country is the President.
This position is the ultimate chance to learn about the many different areas of marketing and business operations in a hands-on environment.
While I don't present this as absolutely the ultimate method that everyone should use, it is important that a standardized technique be adopted.
I am hoping that the students will elect a non-native speaker onto the school council.
In the USA and Germany the people elect a new government every four years; in the UK it is every five years.
During its congress, Committee failed to elect even one woman to a leading position.
Students will need to elect a spokesperson to speak for their group and come to an agreement about their decision.
Associated: election (noun) Note: An elective is a subject that the student can choose to take if he or she wishes. It is not compulsory. 25,00
The school wanted to set up a new computer lab, but the expense would have been too high.
Many people are very concerned about the new identity card system that the government plans to introduce at great expense.
These facilities and supporting resources have been developed and are maintained at considerable expense to the University and to the taxpayers of the State.
The expense was too much for some, and owners were forced to sell their homes at a reduced price.
Associated: expensive (adjective) Note: The verb expend has a similar meaning to spend. You can expend time, energy, money, etc. 25,00
neither[conjuntion] not one or the other; not either
Neither of the history classes he teaches this year has made very good progress.
The government neither intends to comment on the event nor even to admit that it actually happened.
We can say for certain is that neither of the numbers in the pair is zero.
It is known that organizations do not adapt readily or easily; many organizations that change do so in ways that are neither successful nor effective.
Note: Neither has various functions. It can be used as a pronoun, adjective, conjunction or adverb. In example sentence 1 and 3 above neither is a pronoun; in 2 and 4 it is a conjunction. 25,10
adapt[verb] to change (often in response to a changed situation)
Some students find it difficult to adapt to a new school in a new country.
It is possible to adapt cars so that they can be driven by people who have lost an arm or a leg.
If you choose to do nothing to adapt to the changing conditions, you will probably make yourself miserable.
The monks found it difficult to adapt to changes in society and in the economy, and they also found it difficult to adapt to challenges presented by the new learning made available through translations of ancient Greek texts by way of Arabic.
Associated: adaptation (noun) 25,20
harm[verb] to damage or injure
She will harm her chances of graduating unless she starts to attend school more regularly.
Some scientists believe that genetically modified food can harm people's health.
Turning in work completed by other students will only harm you when it comes to the exams.
The Board may presume that those actions created a hostile or abusive work environment which harms the efficiency of the service.
My route to work every day takes me past my old school.
There is English expression which claims: All roads lead to Rome. This means that there is more than one route to fame and success in life.
The western end of the trade route appears to have developed earlier than the eastern end, principally because of the development of the empires in the west.
The need for an alternative route to teacher certification has become evident.
Note: Americans pronounce route to rhyme with out.Britons pronounce route to rhyme with boot. 29,20
profession[noun] job; occupation
The teaching profession is usually not attractive to those are still pupils themselves. This choice of career is normally made much later.
There is a serious shortage of workers in the profession of computer science. The government is hoping to attract qualified workers from overseas to fill the vacancies.
The profession of social work is based on the values of service, social and economic justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, and integrity and competence in practice.
The teaching profession is under siege from an increasing number of social, economic and political factors, leading to large, unmanageable classrooms.
Associated: professional (adjective) 29,20
worth[preposition] useful; having a point or purpose
It's not worth asking him. He doesn't know enough about computers.
It is still too soon to say whether the invasion of Iraq was worth it.
Describe the study in detail sufficient to convince the reviewer that the problem is worth investigation.
It operated below 60%, was generally poorly designed and therefore not worth considering.
Note: Another common meaning of *worth is having a (money) value , as in This painting is *worth more money than I earn in a year. 29,50
exact[adjective] precise, opposite of approximate
We have not yet been able to find out the exact reason why he attacked the teacher.
Sometimes it is difficult to find the exact word to convey an idea. This is particularly true if you are speaking in your second language.
This is a project in process, so some details may not be exact.
His observations were not exact enough to conclude anything significant about nocturnal behaviour.
I am somewhat surprised I did so well in the test because I didn't work very hard this term.
Doctors are somewhat encouraged by the reduction in the numbers of young people starting to smoke.
This is somewhat unusual considering the 1997 survey's response of 41%.
The strategy used for the actual campaign was somewhat different.
arrange[verb] to plan to happen; to group together
Please arrange yourselves in groups of 3 or 4, and then do the problem in the middle of the table.
The chairman needs to arrange a better meeting next time. The last one was very disorganized.
If you are accepted you will need to arrange to have an official copy of your scores sent to the Program address below.
He flew in with 500 rolls of film and 1400 pounds of provisions but forgot to arrange for the pilot to pick him up again.
Associated: arrangement (noun) Note: You make an arrangement when you agree with a friend when and where to meet, etc. 31,80
convert[verb] to change from one thing to another
Can you convert these dollars to Yen for me?
When he left home he planned to convert from Christianity to Buddhism, but then he decided he didn't believe in any god.
The technology to convert carbon monoxide into liquid fuel has been around a long time.
The Wildcats, however, were unable to convert the scoring opportunities into points.
Associated: conversion (noun) 31,80
sector[noun] part; area
The sector of the school behind the car park is for seniors only.
The service sector of the UK economy is much more successful than the manufacturing sector.
The private sector offers many opportunities for students with a history or liberal arts background.
ESS is for students who envision getting involved in the social sector in any capacity: as volunteer consultants, board members, managers, or entrepreneurs.
exercise[noun] a piece of work, activity
The next exercise will help you learn the difference between the present simple and present continuous tenses.
The university's plan to admit more students from poor backgrounds is an exercise that is not certain to succeed.
A scholarly essay is an exercise in developing and defending ideas.
Do NOT wait until the last minute to try to complete the exercise. If you wait until the day it is due, there is a good chance you will not finish on time.
Associated: exercise (verb) 32,00
install[verb] to put in (often a machine or new system)
The school will install a new floor in the sport hall over the summer vacation.
The company director decided to install his son as the new head of marketing.
This document will explain some of the problems that could exist because the computer is unable to install updates for Windows Vista.
Later in the year they plan to install up to 4000,00 more solar panels in a student village to be built for the university.
Associated: installation (noun) 32,40
firm[adjective] strong, cannot be changed
"Be fair, firm and friendly" is the advice often given to new teachers.
The incoming president has made a firm promise to reduce tax in the next period of government.
Above all, a teacher must be firm when dealing with requests for grade changes and other related matters.
His beliefs were not firm enough to withstand the influence of the people worked with.
Associated: firmness (noun); firmly (adverb) Antonym: weak Note: Another common meaning of firm (noun) is company, business, as in The firm is having financial problems. 32,60
latter[adjective] the second of two things mentioned
Either he is not very clever or he does not work very hard. I believe it is the latter.
The government has recently published reports about farming in the UK and illegal drug-taking. The latter has created far more interest in the media.
It was given to the grandmother by her grandfather in 1852, when the latter was a member of the California assembly.
In issues of accuracy or speed, the former must always have priority over the latter.
Associated: Antonym: former 32,60
alter[verb] to change
The government decided to alter its economic policy after three years of very slow growth.
In the next 50 years the world's weather could alter significantly if the polar ice continues to melt.
These budgets must be very carefully designed as it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to alter the amount of the award once it has been granted.
The significant differences between the traditional and non-traditional student has prompted the question whether institutions need to alter their teaching methods to fit the needs of the non-traditional student.
Associated: alteration (noun) 32,70
He has made substantial progress this trimester.
The government is planning to spend a substantial amount of money on new hospitals next year.
The result will be an immediate and substantial increase in the number of faculty of color who are tenured at this institution.
Previous studies have shown that children have substantial difficulties with mathematical equivalence problems.
Associated: substantially (adverb) 32,70
duration[noun] period of time
Most of the families at our international school are here for a duration of 2-3 years
The duration of the Earth's orbit around the sun is 365 days.
Successful applicants will have to provide evidence of medical insurance for the duration of their stay in the Ukraine.
The Board will consider a leave for a President for a duration of approximately one month for each two years of service.
Associated: during (preposition) 32,80
attack[noun] to criticize; to attempt to harm or damage
The administration's proposal to extend the school day came under attack from the teachers.
The government must be prepared for an attack from people who oppose its decision.
It's a serious attack on any community's authority to develop and implement housing policies without consultation.
We had to make sure that our customers in China knew that what we were doing was not an attack on Chinese industry, but a dispute over a legitimate issue.
Associated: attack (verb) Antonym: defence 33,00
confirm[verb] to agree that something is correct
Can you please confirm that you will be at the school next year?
The government official wrote to confirm that the new law applied only to people born after the year 1990.
Lebanese security officials said the soldiers' tank drove over a mine, but Israel said it could not confirm that.
We wanted to confirm that the resonators worked, and our major theoretical assumptions were correct.
Associated: confirmation (noun) 33,00
skill[noun] ability (e.g. in sport or music)
It takes a lot of skill to cook a meal for 20 guests.
As a musician it is not sufficient to have skill. You must practise, practise, practise.
If you currently do not possess the skill to meet this standard, you are advised to enroll in a class that will provide you with this capability.
The beauty of the telephone, and something that the telegraph lacked, was that it required no skill to operate.
Associated: skilful (adjective) Note: Skilfull is also spelled skillful. 33,40
overcome[verb] to conquer, defeat
She was quickly able to overcome the difficulty of speaking little English, and now she is easily the best student in the class.
The government expects to overcome resistance from some people to the prohibition of smoking in public places.
What motives have thus incited him to overcome all the hardships and temptations he encountered on his way from a miserable life to an honorable one.
As a child, he began to stutter severely and, despite the best efforts of his teachers and parents, he was unable to overcome it.
launch[verb] to begin
The school will launch its new vacation sports and study program at the beginning of next month.
The government plans to launch a new campaign to reduce teenage drinking.
To launch the project, a special event will commence at Stanford University's Center for Design Research at 11am today.
In August, UMBC will launch a new home page on our Web site.
Associated: launch (noun) 33,60
transform[verb] to change (often completely)
The reduced rainfall of recent years will transform large parts of the country into desert.
The more powerful computers will continue to transform all aspects of life.
The college is aggressively working to transform engineering education and develop leaders for the 21st century workforce.
Those who could not transform, chose not to, or who were considered a threat to the revolution were imprisoned and eliminated.
Associated: transformation (noun) 33,60
adjust[verb] to change (often in order to make something work properly)
If the picture on your TV is not very clear, you need to adjust the controls.
It took the Brazilian football player a little while to adjust to the speed and hardness of the English football league.
Photoshop provides you with techniques used to adjust the quality of graphics and photographs.
Most older cultures seem to accept volcanoes as a natural part of life and adjust their habits accordingly.
Associated: adjustment (noun) 33,90
adopt[verb] to take in; to start
The school decided to adopt the plan after a meeting with the parents.
We need to adopt a new strategy. This one isn't working.
It is never too late to adopt healthy habits! American Institute for Cancer Research.
Banks that adopt the Equator Principles apply them globally to project financing in all industry sectors including mining, oil and gas, and forestry.
Associated: adoption (noun) Note: Another common use of adopt is in connection with a baby or child, as in They cannot have children of their own so they have decided to adopt a Romanian orphan. 33,90
medium[adjective] in the middle
In the school cafeteria, you can buy drinks of different sizes: small, medium and large.
The police are looking for a woman of medium height, last seen wearing a red jacket
The donors specified that they would like to help hardworking students with medium grades who deserve help.
The scientists advising EPA said they believe there is a medium chance that the corn is an allergen.
eventually[adverb] in the end
Trying to water-ski for the first time is difficult but if you keep practising, you will eventually learn how to do it.
Developments in computer technology may eventually make accurate weather forecasting possible.
He started searching for evidence of Wilson's existence and eventually succeeded in documenting her life up to 1863.
This is research that could eventually help in the treatment of certain kinds of cancer.
Associated: eventual (adjective) 34,40
qualify[verb] to become eligible
Being the best tennis player in grade 7 is not enough to qualify you for the ISST sports competition. You need to be at least 14 years old.
In order to qualify for the Olympic games 100-meter athletes need to have run under 10.2 seconds at least once this year.
FAQ > How do I qualify for free health services?
To qualify for the credit, fuel cells are required to be 500 watt capacity or greater with a generation efficiency of 30% or greater.
Associated: qualification (noun) 34,80
He came up with a novel excuse for not doing his homework, but his teacher did not believe him.
Advertising agencies are always looking for novel ways to sell boring product like washing powder or packet soups.
In this article, a novel way of teaching chemistry is presented that uses contemporary music and chemical lyrics to educate.
Rusher readily admitted that his was not a novel idea.
Associated: novelty (noun) Note: Another common meaning of novel (noun) is a long fiction story, as in One of the most famous novels in the English language is Great Expectations. 34,80
emphasize[verb] to stress, to say something strongly
I need to emphasize the importance of meeting the project deadlines.
Let me emphasize again that you must work alone; you are not permitted to get help from anyone else.
Both of these programs can be amended as needed to emphasize a particular area of vocabulary.
Army leadership must emphasize the importance of reducing energy demand to decrease costs.
Associated: emphasis (noun) Note: Emphasize is also spelled emphasise. 35,10
gather[verb] to bring or get together
It is easy to use the internet to gather a lot of information. Whether it is of good quality is a different matter!
The police need to gather more evidence before they can make any arrests.
First, you will need to gather background information about all of the supporting questions.
After several years of work, the project team was not able to gather the political support needed to maintain funding for the integrated service program.
Associated: gathering (noun) Note: Another meaning of gather (verb) is understand, have heard, as in I gather your not coming to my party. 35,10
familiar[adjective] known; well-known
Is anyone in class familiar with the terms 'subject' and 'predicate'?
Coca Cola is a name that is familiar to most people in the world.
The remaining 40 percent said that they were not familiar with the term 'sustainable agriculture'.
When societies collapse into violence the result is all too familiar: the destruction of life and infrastructure, gross abuses of human rights.
My immediate reaction was that something had happened to him on the way to school.
On hearing of the terrorist attack the president called an immediate meeting of his top advisers.
In 1993 a student wrote an article critical of Martin Luther King. The response was immediate and negative.
Most of the time you will get immediate assistance, unless another emergency has arisen before yours.
Associated: immediately (adverb) 41,70
aspect[noun] feature, part of
An aspect of English that many learners find difficult is verb grammar.
One aspect of the problem that no-one has yet considered is: Who is going to pay?
"In the modern business world, the most important aspect of leadership is the ability to create an environment that lifts people up," says Jain.
Freedom of speech is not the only aspect of democracy.
Headaches and sleeplessness are typical problems of a student who has just moved here from a different country.
It is typical to do market research before bringing out a new product.
But mine was not a typical Negro family. My grandmother never took in washing or worked in service or went much to church.
This standard text contains the typical method of trisecting a segment.
Associated: typically (adverb); typify (verb) 42,00
outline[noun] plan or summary
Before doing a longer piece of writing it is usually a good idea to make an outline to organize your main ideas.
The government gave an outline of its plans to change taxation. The full report will not be ready until next year.
If your exam is closed book, you will want to prepare an outline that will assist you in studying until the day of the exam.
This is a very brief and inadequate outline of a few of the leading points in a very large investigation with which I am occupied.
Associated: outline (verb) 42,20
I am aware of her problems at home, but this doesn't mean that she can be rude and disruptive in school.
The workers were not aware of the management's plans to relocate the factory.
A high percentage of students are not aware of tutoring services offered by the College of Engineering.
While you may not admit to political pressure, you must be aware of its almost constant presence; and you must recognize it and be prepared to deal with it.
Associated: awareness (noun) 42,30
illustrate[verb] to show; to make clear
You may have learned the steps of the scientific method but, in your preparation, failed to illustrate each step with an example.
The war in Iraq serves to illustrate the government's unwillingness to listen to the wishes of the majority of its people.
These orders do much to illustrate the significant need for better organization in terms of record-keeping.
The results from this experimental course illustrate very clearly that flow visualization can be performed successfully by a wide range of people.
Associated: illustrative (adverb); illustration(noun) Note: Another common meaning of illustration is picture, as in This book has many interesting illustrations. 42,30
reverse[verb] to turn back or go back
If you reverse the page, you will see the map I would like you to copy.
The government has stated that it will not reverse its decision to ban smoking in pubs.
We must reverse the trend of a growing incidence of campus hate crimes.
I believe that the DOD (Department of Defense) should reverse this discriminatory policy.
If we are to contemplate actions designed to reverse the pattern of current difficulties in Viet Nam we ought to lay the groundwork.
Shonekan was unable to reverse Nigeria's ever-growing economic problems.
Associated: reverse (noun); reversal (noun) 42,30
combine[verb] to put or go together
When two atoms of hydrogen combine with one of oxygen, then the result is H2O, water.
If you can combine your intelligence with hard work, you have a good chance of success.
Click here to review the rules of comma usage when you combine two independent clauses.
The UCLA Philharmonia, however, is bridging the gap between North and South campuses with two concerts that combine symphony with science and history.
Associated: combination (noun) 42,60
agent[noun] a person who is paid to do a job for someone
Most people employ an agent when they want to buy or sell a house.
Most famous footballers and film stars need an agent to take care of their contracts.
The United Mine Workers was the recognized bargaining agent for the coal miners in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.
FLO plays the key role as an agent for ethically sensitive consumers.
Associated: agency (noun) 42,60
organize[verb] to put into (its proper) place
You need to organize your ideas a little better. It's difficult to follow what you are trying to say.
The government minister needed time to organize his reply to the criticisms made about his department.
Due to her student teaching commitments Murray was unable to organize this year's event.
They must organize their information so that it is easy for the observer to understand the historical significance of their event.
Associated: organization (noun) Note: The most common meaning of organization is a large group of people working for a common purpose , as in Greenpeace is an organization that works to protect the environment. 42,60
constant[adjective] not changing; long-lasting
There was a constant noise coming from the classroom above.
The athlete was in constant pain from the metal plate in her leg.
She resisted the constant pressure to take a husband because she regarded marriage as fundamentally incompatible with the objectives of her reign.
While it is true that as people get older, their taste buds are not as sensitive, this does not usually result in a constant bad taste in your mouth.
Requiring students to leave the school building at lunchtime is not a very popular innovation from the new principal.
Fish farming is an innovation that should go some way to compensating for the reduction of fish in the oceans.
Is the Smartboard just the latest teaching innovation that will be popular for a year or so and then disappear without trace?
In many cases what was once an innovation is now taken for granted. Remarkable inventions, once assimilated into daily life, become routine.
Associated: innovate (verb) 43,20
suppose[verb] to think, imagine
I suppose we are going to have a test on this. - You are right!
Some environmental scientists claim that the dangers of global warming are even greater than most people suppose.
Now suppose that a box contains one fair coin and one coin with a head on each side.
I suppose one thing I cannot do is review the film as I wished it had been made.
Just suppose someone wakes up after sleeping for thousand years. How might the world look different?
We can only suppose that Fulton was already too deeply committed to his own plan to consider alternative ideas.
Associated: supposition (noun) Note: If you are supposed to do something, then you have an obligation or duty to do it. Example: She was supposed to pick me up from the airport, but she forgot. 43,20
fundamental[adjective] very important
It is of fundamental importance that you learn academic vocabulary.
Many people believe that the invasion of Iraq was a fundamental mistake.
They have made a fundamental error in the way they are thinking about the opportunities and problems their business face.
Abortion is not a fundamental right; it can be limited if the state wishes.
Associated: fundamentally (adverb) 43,60
modify[verb] to change
The government decided to modify their plans after thousands of people demonstrated on the streets of the capital city.
If you want to run this software, you will need to modify the operating system.
The new policy means that faculty members can no longer enter or modify grades for these classes online.
Sometimes it becomes more important to modify tried-and-tested methods and habits rather than allocate more resources.
Associated: modification (noun) 43,80
tradition[noun] a usual, old-time way of doing things
It is a tradition in my family for everyone to get together for Sunday lunch.
In some businesses it is the tradition that the eldest son takes over when the father dies.
The Cole Conservatory evolves from a Music Department with a long tradition of exceptional training for students from all backgrounds.
There was not the tradition of going to school; it was expected that you'd go to work and contribute to the family.
Associated: traditional (adjective); traditionally (adverb) 44,40
unless[conjuntion] if not
You will fail the course unless you start working harder.
Global warming seems certain to increase unless we can find greener ways of producing energy.
No matter how good the lawyer's intuition and ability to express himself or herself, the lawyer will not succeed unless he or she can analyze logically.
You have an idea that cannot fail, unless you hire the wrong people.
sum[noun] an amount of money, total
The school had to pay a small sum to the parents of the boy who hurt his arm on the ski trip.
Car companies spend a considerable sum of money advertising their products.
Carrying a large sum of money is not a crime.
He mentioned what seemed like a huge sum. It was indeed a huge amount for a programme that had only a skeleton staff and strained budget.
Note: A sum in mathematics class is a simple problem, as in Some children never really learn to do their sums. 44,40
appeal[verb] to complain against an official judgment; to make a strong request
The parents decided to appeal against the school's expulsion their son.
Radio and TV stations often appeal for money from their audience in order to help people suffering from disasters.
Students are strongly recommended to seek assistance from the Student Rights Officer at their campus should they decide to appeal against exclusion.
It has no alternative but to appeal to more sources and additional help from all those who are keen to support Palestinian education.
Associated: appeal (noun) Note: If something appeals to you you like it or like the idea of it. Example: Lying for hours in the sun does not really appeal to me. 44,40
mental[adjective] of the brain or mind
The student was suffering from mental and physical problems as a result of taking drugs for several months.
Not all patients with mental disabilities need to stay in hospital.
The ASVAB is a mental ability test given to all potential entrants to the Armed Services.
Later in 1975, the APA announced that homosexuality was not a mental disorder and in 1994 they acknowledged that it was neither a mental illness nor a moral deficiency.
Associated: Antonym: physical 44,70
chief[adjective] most important
Our chief problem is how to convince the governors that we are right.
The chief danger to the soldiers is suicide bombers at the checkpoints.
As large and difficult as it was, it was not the chief problem. The deeper problem was conceptual.
A half century ago the conflict over state regulation of railroads was the chief issue in Alabama politics.
Associated: chiefly (adverb) Note: Your chief is the person you work for. Much more usual, however, is to refer to him or her as your boss 45,00
argument[noun] justification or reason (for an idea)
His argument is that if we don't cut taxes, then unemployment will rise.
In my opinion the government's argument for banning smoking is very weak. Surely they don't expect people to agree!
A thought- provoking argument suggests we should expect the extinction of intelligent life on Earth soon.
This is, once again, not an argument against bilingual education, because studies have shown that children in well- designed bilingual programs do well.
Associated: argue (verb) Note: Another common meaning of argument is word fight, as in I had a huge argument with my boss yesterday. 45,00
except[preposition] (but) not
You can take any book except this one. I'm reading it.
The doctor examined the patient carefully, except that he forgot to check blood pressure.
The campus will be closed except for needed emergency services and essential work.
Even more extraordinary, every child except one was more than willing to state his or her name to the stranger.
Associated: exception (noun) Note: In example sentence 2 above except is being used as a conjunction. Something that is exceptional is extremely good, outstanding , as in That was an exceptional piece of work. Well done! 45,10
mechanism[noun] procedure, process
There is a very clear mechanism in the school for expelling students who do not follow the rules.
An enormous amount of research has been conducted into the mechanism by which young children learn to speak.
There is no mechanism in the master plan to assess whether or not we are doing what we are supposed to do.
We still don't know if this is really the correct mechanism to explain the imbalance between matter and antimatter that we observe.
arise[verb] to happen
His problems at school started to arise when he began spending hours on the internet every evening.
The difficulties that arise from time to time in the business can be solved by good management.
The latest problems to arise with the red maple tree are a result of the extreme weather patterns and environmental stress.
Bodde's main concern, it turns out, is to elucidate why modern science did not arise in China as it did in Europe.
prefer[verb] to like better
What would you prefer to do today? Write a dictation or watch a video?
Some people like to get up late and go to work late. Others prefer to be at work early so they have a long evening to enjoy.
Women prefer cats to men.
Studies have shown that students prefer jobs that they like to jobs that pay well.
Associated: preference (noun) 45,60
This is an outstanding piece of work. Well done!
She will need an outstanding performance to have any chance of winning the game. Her opponent is much better.
If you are reliable and flexible, enjoy solving tasks independently and are committed to achieving outstanding performance, then this is the job for you.
This is yet another outstanding example of the positive partnership between TMH and the FSU College of Medicine.
Associated: outstandingly (adverb) 45,80
coordinate[verb] to bring things or people together so that they work well
If we want this plan to be a success, we need to coordinate our resources very carefully.
It is the job of the brain to coordinate all the body systems.
The naval and air forces failed to coordinate their schedules and the carrier planes arrived a half hour later than expected.
It is extremely important to coordinate the installation with all parties involved.
Associated: coordination (noun) 45,90
mention[verb] to say; state
If you are going on the field trip, do not forget to mention if you need a special diet.
Children visiting the internet chatrooms are advised not to mention their real names.
The 9-11 Commission failed to mention or address the multiple war game exercises that were being conducted that day, out of the White House.
When we ask people to describe their characters when they are at their best, they mention confident, hopeful, humorous, optimistic, resourceful.
Associated: mention (noun) 45,90
consist[verb] to have in it; to have as part of it
The cakes consist of flour, sugar, eggs and milk.
The committee needs to consist of both teachers and parents.
The documentation must consist of a comprehensive, typed report that states a specific, current diagnosis.
The problem for France was that the population did not consist of responsible citizens which were necessary for the desired liberal system.
principal[adjective] most important
Her frequent absence from school is the principal reason for her bad grades in the final exams
The principal problem facing the world this century is how to reduce global warming.
The rat lungworm, is the principal cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide.
Bush's principal argument for re-election is his war on terrorism, but in fact that's one of the principal reasons he should not be re-elected.
Note: Another common meaning of principal (noun) is leader of a school, as in The principal wants to see you - now! 46,20
serious[adjective] severe, large
She is having serious problems in her mathematics class. She cannot even multiply two numbers using a calculator.
The government needs to make a more serious effort to ensure that all school-leavers have a job.
Survey show that women in American don't recognize their most serious health risk.
One study found that anemia was a strong predictor of other serious problems that were not present at the time anemia was first detected.
Teachers fear that students will be negatively affected by the construction of a new road just outside many of the classrooms.
Some politicians fear that too much immigration will result in fewer jobs for the people born in the country.
The Institute must take greater measures to assure students that they need not fear consequences when seeking medical help for substance abuse.
She did not fear death, but saw it as a welcome release or respite from earthly existence.
Associated: fear (noun); fearful (adjective) 46,50
judge[verb] to give an opinion about someone or something
It is difficult to judge how much her excellent grade is due to hard work and how much to natural talent.
It is too early to judge whether the government's plan to reduce child poverty have been successful or not.
The university's officials hope that their applications will not drop significantly, though it is too soon to judge the effect of the hurricane.
All of those guidelines put together would make it nearly impossible to judge a piece of art or literature.
The supervisor will judge whether the paper is satisfactory, and thus she or he should make sure the student has enough preparation.
People are more likely to take risks they would not take when sober, and are unable to judge accurately their ability to drive.
Associated: judgement (noun); judge (noun) Note: A judge is the person with the power to sentence a convicted criminal in a law court . ( Judgement can also be spelled judgment.) 46,50
element[noun] aspect, part
One element of the problem that we have not yet considered is: How are we going to pay for it?
Intelligence is just one element in being a successful student. You also have to show initiative and perseverance.
Since it was founded in 1999, the partnership program has been a key element in the dramatic increase in applications to the College.
Transportation is not an important element in the marketing cost of the new product.
donate[verb] to give (usually money)
The World Bank plans to donate 50% more money to developing countries in the new year.
If you don't need your old furniture, you could donate it to the youth club.
We hoped to find relevant data on why certain people donate time and money and others don't.
As a result of the efforts over this last year, SAGE was able to donate books to more than 30 deserving schools in Illinois.
Associated: donation (noun) 46,80
deliver[verb] to provide (often by bringing to people)
The school needs to deliver the students' project work to the examination board before the end of the month.
The new government plans to deliver the best possible health service for all of its citizens.
This certificate program is a series of fully online courses that will show you how to design and deliver a quality course via the Internet.
Bali has failed to deliver a proposed ten year program to work on sustainable production and consumption.
Associated: delivery (noun) 47,10
technique[noun] a method of doing something
You should try new technique for learning vocabulary. Your present one does not seem very successful.
Medical science now uses a computer scanning technique to examine the interior of the human body.
Using a new technique to trap and measure single particles with lasers, an international group of researchers have demonstrated that Brownian motion of a single particle behaves differently than Einstein theorized one century ago.
No other technique has been used more often or by more college teachers than the Minute Paper.
This technique provides a quick and extremely simple way to collect written feedback on student learning.
expert[noun] someone with great knowledge in a particular field
The school has employed an expert to advise on the best way to use computer technology in the classroom.
You do not need to be an expert in computers to make a web page or send an email.
Dr. Glick is an expert in community and public health nursing programs and issues.
I am no expert in animal behavior, but anyone with even a slight knowledge of the field must be impressed with their complex forms of social behavior.
Associated: expertise (noun) 47,40
poor[adjective] bad, unsatisfactory
This work is very poor. How much time did you spend on it?
The manager was asked to leave the company after two years of poor performance.
The two parties paid for these mistakes through extremely poor performance in the final national elections.
The nine women here say the poor treatment of domestic workers is an apartheid-era relic that has no place in democratic South Africa.
Associated: poverty (noun); poorly (adverb) Antonym: good Note: The most common meaning of poor , of course, is not rich. 47,60
realize[verb] to come to know or understand
I didn't realize that she wasn't English. She spoke so fluently and accurately.
The doctor began to realize that her patient was not telling the whole truth about what was wrong.
Community service has helped me to realize the contradictions that we live in.
The common, misinformed man did not realize that fleas infected black rats, which in turn bit humans.
Associated: realization (noun) Note: Realize can also be spelled realise 48,00
formal[adjective] serious, not relaxed or everyday
The school gave a formal warning to the teacher who had arrived late to school several times that month.
Loo (= toilet) is not a word that you should use in formal situations.
An employee or University student who wishes the matter to receive a formal investigation and review should contact the EEO Officer.
A person who wishes to bring a complaint has two options: an informal complaint or a formal complaint.
Associated: Antonym: informal 48,20
reply[noun] an answer
If someone invites you to their party, it's polite to send them a reply and tell them if you can come or not.
When the USA expelled two Russian diplomats, the Russian reply was to do the same.
Seven years is probably long enough to wait for a reply to a letter before concluding that there will never be one.
If your reply is not relevant at all to the subject line, start a new thread with a fresh subject line.
Associated: reply (verb) 48,20
equivalent[adjective] equal to; the same as
Take 3 grams of sodium chloride and an equivalent amount of sugar.
If men and women do equivalent jobs they should earn equivalent pay.
A three-year Indian bachelor's degree is NOT equivalent to a U.S. bachelor's degree.
When two forms of an assessment tool are equivalent, it should make little difference which one we use.
Associated: equivalence (noun) 48,20
military[adjective] to do with army
The school took the students on a visit to the history museum to see a special exhibition of Roman military equipment.
The government has increased military spending by 50% in the last two years.
Arming the Bosnian Serbs was regarded as a political rather than a military issue.
The continued presence of a huge military force in the Gulf area provides the necessary element of pressure to ensure implementation of obligations.
Associated: military (noun) 48,30
dynamic[adjective] changing; growing; energetic
Not everyone likes dynamic webpages with lots of movement and sound.
China has experienced dynamic growth in the last few years.
An exciting and dynamic teacher will receive more positive results than a teacher who is boring and low key.
If we want to maintain support for an open and dynamic economy, our programs need to become as flexible and adaptable as the economy itself.
Some parents do not permit their daughters to go on school trips.
The airport authorities have decided to permit passengers to carry only very small amounts of liquid onto the plane.
The Law School will not permit you to take a course pass/fail unless you have received written permission.
As the advisor, you often have other responsibilities that do not always permit giving undivided attention to the organization.
Associated: permission (noun) Antonym: forbid Note: A permit (noun) is an official piece of paper allowing the holder to do something (cf. license) , as in You will need a permit if you want to fish here. 49,80
contemporary[adjective] of this time, happening now
I cannot think of any contemporary writers who are better than her.
A popular type of TV programme shows people who escape the contemporary world and pretend to live as farmers did 100 years ago.
Students who take the class are expected to choose a contemporary problem they would like to address and collaborate with each other in researching it.
This irregularity strongly suggests that the two constructions are not contemporary, but rather that one was constructed later.
Associated: contemporary (noun) 50,00
The latest instance of his bad behaviour was to lock another student in the toilet.
There are many things that people can do in the battle against global warming. For instance, they can turn off lights when they leave the room.
During the period of time that a student is on probation, any further instance of misconduct will cause the Board seriously to consider requiring the student to withdraw from the College.
However, you may also include a citation at a natural breaking point within the sentence, for instance before a comma or a conjunction.
reform[verb] to change and improve
The university has decided to reform its admissions policy to include more non-native speakers of English.
The government would like to reform the health service but the doctors are against their proposals.
The organizations that take credit for putting ecology first have failed to reform or develop a system that will allow them to achieve their goals.
Elders says that the U.S. must reform its sick health care system.
Associated: reform (noun) 50,10
urban[adjective] of the town or city
The Ruhrgebiet is a large urban area in north west Germany.
People who move from the countryside to a large city often take time to adjust to urban living.
The course introduces students to the structure and function of cities and ways planners solve urban problems.
The purpose of the study is to examine the hypothesis that urban life is more stressful than rural life.
Associated: Antonym: rural 50,10
The circumstances that led to the train crash are being investigated by the police.
With his difficult family circumstances it is not really surprising that he's having trouble in school.
We recognize that circumstances beyond a family's control may inhibit a family's ability to contribute to educational expenses.
The role of doctors as a conscience of the community deserves more consideration in times of stress and under difficult circumstances such as war.
Note: This word is possible in the singular (Google: 13 million hits) but much more common in the plural (90 million hits). 50,20
yield[verb] to produce
Her consistent efforts throughout the school year are certain to yield excellent results in her final examinations.
The management is hoping that its new improved product will yield increased profits.
An even number multiplied by an odd number will always yield an even number.
For the purposes of this study, then, increasing the testing strength did not yield more accurate results.
Associated: yield (noun) 50,40
interpretation[noun] explanation; assessment
What is your interpretation of his recent odd behaviour?
This text is open to a variety of interpretations.
The correct interpretation of this text requires recovering certain implicit information that relies on commonsense knowledge.
The priests of this institution did not give their answers by inspiration, but occupied themselves chiefly with the interpretation of dreams
Associated: interpret (verb) 50,60
domain[noun] area (of interest)
Educational websites have the domain suffix: .edu. For example, the URL of this website is: esl.fis.edu.
Government ministers should not comment on matters outside of their own domain; they often do not know enough about such topics.
The images in this collection are in the public domain. You do not need to ask for permission to use them.
They all use tools from well outside the natural domain of the problem.
specify[verb] to state exactly
If you can specify the problems you had with your last history project, I will be able to help you better with your current one.
The university intend to make some changes in its admissions policy, but it cannot yet specify what those changes will be.
When faculty members assign an Incomplete grade they must specify the work required.
Much of the literature reviewed by the committee failed to specify in sufficient detail the definition of a medication error used in the study.
Associated: specification (noun); specifically (adverb); specific (adjective) 51,00
numerous[adjective] very many
There are numerous students from Korea at Frankfurt International School.
There have been numerous attempts to build an intelligent robot, but so far no-one has been successful.
The essay asks students to complete several tasks, giving the students numerous examples of human rights cases.
Unfortunately, heroines of this sort are not numerous in oral tales, and do not exist at all in any of the Grimm tales.
interact[verb] to react, to affect and be affected
It's good to see students of different nationalities interact so naturally as they do at our school.
Medical scientists have done extensive research on individual drugs but they do not know so much how drugs interact with each other
About a quarter of the elementary and secondary students typically did not interact with the teacher at all during class.
Biological processes interact strongly with physical and chemical processes to create the planetary environment.
Associated: interaction (noun) 51,30
rise[noun] to go up
If the price of petrol continue to rise, many people will not be able to use their car so often.
An aspect of this war is the rise of a large anti-war movement in the US.
With an increase in the price of food and necessaries, the natural price of labor will rise; with the fall in their price, the natural price of labor will fall.
Minimum temperatures failed to rise above freezing until the 26th of the month.
As life spans increase, the fraction of life spent in retirement will rise unless we delay our exit from paid work.
Associated: rise (verb) Antonym: fall, sink 51,60
minor[adjective] small, not important
There are one or two minor spelling problems but in general this is an excellent piece of writing.
The company does a minor amount of business in the USA; the majority of its trade is in Europe.
Studies have proven that taste is only a minor consideration in the purchase decision for soft drinks.
Unfortunately, hunger is no minor problem in the United States, where the disparity between the affluent and the indigent is considerable.
Associated: Antonym: major 51,90
You have not made a clear enough contrast between the causes and effects of the disaster.
There is a strong contrast between what the government promised to do and what it has actually achieved.
You do not need to consider the whole of human psychology, but you should make a contrast between good excuses and bad excuses.
Though all of them are presented in English, there is a significant contrast in clarity between the various reports.
Associated: contrast (verb) Note: A common academic essay title is Compare and contrast .. , as in Compare and contrast the origins of the First and Second World Wars. 52,00
We did an experiment in science class to see if salt water boils more quickly than fresh water.
The workers participated in an experiment to see if they worked harder with music in the background.
Fortunately, Franklin was not injured by the electrical shock he received during this dangerous experiment.
It was an experiment in how new communication technologies could serve a community's educational goals.
There are diverse reasons for his academic success. The most important one is his willingness to work very hard.
The most diverse animal class is the insect. Insects come in thousands of shapes and colors.
These instruction and assessment strategies meet the needs of learners who are diverse (e.g., in culture, ethnicity, race, language, special needs).
Children behave aggressively in a variety of ways, for diverse reasons, and with varying outcomes.
Associated: diversity (noun) 52,50
observe[verb] to watch carefully
Science teacher: Please observe what happens when I pour water into the flask.
If you observe a group of monkeys carefully, you will soon be able to tell who is the leader.
Aycock stated that he had looked over the horse before the purchase and did not observe any marks indicating that the horse had been cut.
Both of these deep sky objects are reserved for telescopes, so be sure to observe them from a dark site.
Associated: observation (noun) 52,80
instead[preposition] in place of; rather than
Instead of learning words by saying them aloud, why don't you write them on cards. This has proved to be a good method.
The government should spend money in its own country, but it chooses to fight wars in other countries instead.
Examples of everyday fitness programs include walking during lunch hour, parking farther away from one's place of work, and taking stairs instead of an elevator.
There will not be representative democracy in Iraq. Instead, there will be a long US-led military occupation that will incite resistance.
Note: Instead can also function as an adverb, as in example sentences 2 and 4 below. When it is used as a preposition, it must be followed by of. 52,90
transition[noun] a move from one (place, time, etc.) to another
The transition to a new school in a new country is a difficult one for most students.
At some time in the future we will need to make a total transition from fossil fuel power, such as coal and oil, to renewable fuels such wind or sun energy.
The book focuses on the key role the family plays as teenagers navigate the difficult transition from childhood to adulthood.
China is, indeed, going through a transition, but it is not a transition from capitalism to communism.
Associated: transitional (adjective) 53,00
train[verb] to teach someone how to do a job
In an international school, it is important to train all the teachers to help the non-native speakers of English in their classes.
The government is thinking about introducing courses to train young people how to be good parents.
The goal of the Program is to train students to investigate significant problems in human physiology using modern technology.
Supervisors must train employees in the importance of safe work practices.
Associated: training (noun); trainer (noun) 53,10
construct[verb] to make
They are planning to construct a new bridge behind the school.
Children like to construct cars or buildings from plastic bricks.
Each student must construct a Web site based upon his or her major research project.
Despite the enormous amount of effort invested in her language teaching she was not able to construct grammatical sentences.
Associated: construction (noun) 53,40
objective[noun] aim or goal
The main objective of this ESL course is to improve students' ability in academic writing.
The government looks likely to succeed in its objective to reduce child poverty by the end of the decade.
The primary objective of the Management Information Systems Department is to prepare students for exciting and challenging careers in the information technology.
It is clear that the Mid-Zambezi Project has failed in its objective of controlling immigration.
Note: Another common meaning of objective (adjective) is without bias or prior opinion (opposite of subjective). Example: He's your son. How can you be objective about his chances of success? 54,00
inform[verb] to say, give information
I want to inform you that I shall be leaving the school at the end of the next term.
All political parties have websites these days to inform people of their policies.
The administrative staff will inform the student supervisor when a student has failed to provide required documents and other information.
It quickly became apparent, however, that someone forgot to inform the president of this decision.
Associated: information (noun) 54,00
authority[noun] control (right to control)
Parents have authority over their children until the children leave home.
The government has no authority to tell people how to live.
The owner of the organization has the authority to make decisions.
The Department Coordinator, elected by peers, has the same one vote as the others and has no authority over her peers.
Associated: authorize (verb) Note: The expression the authorities is used to refer to people in power such as the police, the government, etc.. Example: It's time the the authorities did something about drinking on the streets. 54,20
pattern[noun] clear and consistent behaviour
There is an obvious pattern to her absences from school: Monday mornings and Friday afternoons!
Research into heart disease has revealed a clear pattern: those who smoke too much, drink too much and do not exercise enough are the most likely to suffer from it.
The more information a sentence carries, the more it needs an evident pattern that the reader can follow.
There was no pattern to the spread of the disease.
Note: Pattern also refers to the lines and shapes on a piece of clothing, as in I like the pattern on your shirt! 54,40
majority[noun] more than 50%
The majority of teachers at this school are native speakers of English.
A majority of the government ministers was in favour of invading Iraq.
A significant majority indicated that they enjoyed learning the course.
Lincoln, while receiving a majority vote among northerners, did not receive a majority of ALL the popular votes.
Associated: Antonym: minority 55,00
broad[adjective] wide, extensive
He has a broad knowledge of computer technology.
The Mississippi is a broad river.
The two scholars are impressed with the broad audience of readers their blog drew after their first three postings on Dec. 5, 2004.
The goal is to produce world-class scholars with capabilities in research, teaching, and service within the broad area of Information and Decision Sciences.
earn[verb] to get money or another reward (usually by working for it)
Many students earn some extra money by working in the summer vacation.
The best footballers can earn many thousands of pounds every day.
It is impossible to earn a good grade in this course without reading the material.
She needed to earn enough money to be able to afford London's sky-high prices.
Associated: earning (noun) 59,70
The new teacher looks quite young but his actual age is 55.
There are a few meetings next week but the actual conference doesn't start until on Monday 23.
In the event of an actual disaster a new virtual bulletin board will help the campus take roll.
Class data will be collected to compare perceived overweight and attempt at dieting with actual weight risk classification.
Associated: actually (adverb) 59,70
target[noun] aim, goal
I have set myself the target of learning all these 1000 academic words by the end of the school year. That's 8 per day!
The government failed to meet its target of reducing child poverty by 20%.
Sufficient progress has been made with regard to drinking water to place within reach the target of halving the proportion of the population without access to safe drinking water between 1990 and 2015.
The proposed system seems an improbable target for the short-term, given that a half century of work with this goal has met only limited success.
Associated: target (verb) Note: The target of someone with a gun or bow and arrow is what she or she is pointing at. Example: The Olympic biathlete missed the target by just 0,5mm. 60,00
tend[verb] to often behave in a certain way
Teachers tend to get annoyed if students do not pay attention in class.
The government ministers tend to treat people as children to be protected from all the ills of the world.
Successful people tend to have four underlying beliefs: I choose to succeed. I can succeed. I will succeed. I have succeeded.
Carla Santos, a professor of leisure studies, says our perception of another culture is likely shaped by accounts of travel writers, who tend to perpetuate cultural stereotypes.
Associated: tendency (noun) 60,30
communicate[verb] to convey information
In an international school it is important to communicate to the parents in their own languages.
The government is having difficulty trying to communicate the reasons for its change of policy.
This illustrated publication introduces the different ways deaf people can communicate, including gestures and facial expressions, speechreading, etc.
Even though the right hemisphere could not communicate to observers what stimuli it had been presented with, it did show some verbal comprehension.
Associated: communication (noun) 60,30
Please write a brief summary of the causes of the first world war. Write no more than 300 words.
Give me a brief explanation of how the accident happened.
These notes are intended as a brief introduction to some of the main ideas and methods of calculus.
Since most employers spend less than a minute scanning a resume, it is necessary to be brief and to highlight all that is important.
Look at the condition of your homework planner! You will have to buy a new one.
The company was in a very strong condition after winning a million dollar contract to build its machines.
The libraries are in a poor condition and are in urgent need of restocking with new books and journals in both Arabic and English.
Applying the engineering feedback concept, we can search and reach the optimum condition with a very small number of tests.
Note: Another important use of the word condition is to express what must happen before something else can be done. Examples: I'll lend you my iPod on condition that you return it tomorrow. - or - A condition of releasing you from prison is that you must report to the police once a week. 69,80
positive[adjective] good; optimistic
I have a positive feeling about the forthcoming exams.
He did not get a positive response to his request for a day's absence from work.
Alumni have expressed much positive reaction to the Alumni Association's recent initiatives to expand its use of electronic newsletters and its Web site.
It is possible this information was ignored because it was not positive or because it was simply unavailable.
Associated: Antonym: negative Note: In maths and science the word positive is associated with + plus and negative with - minus. 69,90
former[adjective] previous, the one before, the first of two
One of the teacher's former students came into the class yesterday. She had just been offered a teaching job herself.
The former head of police criticized the government's changes in drugs policy.
The grade will be amended but the former grade will remain on the record with an appropriate notation.
The former is preferable for a field of inquiry that is still in its infancy, whereas the latter is suitable for fields that have a developed theory.
against[preposition] opposed to; not for or in favour
The head teacher is thinking of introducing a school uniform. Most students are against the idea.
Although nuclear power does not pollute the air, many people are against it because they fear an accident or terrorist attack on a nuclear power station.
I think this the first time that the administration has done something almost totally against student interest.
The majority of American voters have turned against the war in Iraq but not against the American troops and not against patriotism.
Associated: Antonym: for, in favour of 74,20
reserve[verb] to keep
Please reserve me a seat at the back of the school bus.
The government intends to reserve the information for itself. The public will not have access to it until the end of the decade.
Once you've chosen the course or courses you wish to take, you should contact COM so that we can reserve a place for you.
We reserve the right to refuse alcohol service to anyone who cannot provide proper identification.
Associated: reservation (noun) 74,40
analyze[verb] to look at something in detail in order to understand it
If you analyze the figures carefully, you will see some strong patterns.
Modern computers can analyze huge amounts of information every second.
When you analyze a primary source, you are undertaking the most important job of the historian.
Critical thinking is the ability of students to analyze carefully and logically information and ideas from multiple perspectives.
Associated: analysis (noun) Note: Analyze is the typical American English spelling. In British English analyse is more likely. 74,40
monitor[verb] to watch ( someone's or something's behaviour )
I think we should monitor her work more closely for the next few weeks. She needs to know that we are concerned about her progress.
The government will monitor the situation in Iraq very carefully, but has not yet made any changes in its policy.
Another reason to monitor student e-mail and internet usage is to ensure their safety.
The robot will monitor medications, and alert help if the patient falls.
Associated: monitor (noun) Note: Another common meaning of monitor (noun) is viewing screen of a computer. 74,70
justice[noun] fairness in law
There is no justice. She worked very hard and got poor grades, whereas he didn't work at all but came top of the class.
The parents of the innocent man who was shot by police on the London Underground are fighting for justice.
There is very little justice of the poor and middle class as our corrupt judges have developed a system called lawyer denial.
Antigone makes it clear that she is willing to meet her untimely death to gain justice.
Associated: just (adjective) Antonym: injustice 75,00
initial[adjective] starting, first
My initial intention was to resign, but then I changed my mind.
Of course she makes grammar mistakes; she is at the initial stage of learning English.
This report summarizes our initial findings.
The student is experiencing initial difficulties with the reading requirements of the course.
Associated: initially (adverb) Note: Used as a plural noun initials (noun) refer to the first letters of each of your names. . The webmaster's initials are PWS (Paul William Shoebottom). 75,20
I generally come to school by bus, but my father is driving me this week.
It is generally impossible to get into university unless you have done well in school.
The government generally did not take steps to investigate or punish the most serious cases of abuse.
The method of evaluation used will be determined by the instructor but will generally include a combination (or all) of the following: homework, quizzes, exams, and a comprehensive final exam.
Associated: general (adjective) Note: A useful alternative expression is in general . Example In general his work is good, but recently it has deteriorated. 75,20
official[adjective] approved by an authority
The official language of the school is English but many documents are also translated into German.
There has been no official statement about the number of soldiers who were killed in the fighting.
If you are applying from a country in which English is not the official language, you are required to submit evidence of English language proficiency.
We will also tell you how the precaution to take if you decide to use email as an official means of communication.
Associated: officially (adverb); official (noun) Antonym: unofficial Note: An official is a person with authority such as a policeman, as in Government officials are always telling us what to do. 75,40
gain[noun] to get; to increase in ..
I hope to gain a good grade in my grammar test.
House prices in England have continued to gain in value every year for the past century.
Cocaine did not gain much popularity in the United States until the 1960s.
Participants will gain in-depth exposure to each topic through classroom assignments and structured exercises within team environments.
Associated: gain (verb) Antonym: lose Note: A popular athlete's expression about the need for hard physical work is: No pain, no gain! 75,60
She lied to the principal and cheated in her test, but because of her family situation, it was decided to allow her to stay.
The situation of the old people in the home was serious. There was not enough personnel to take care of them.
Nancy Tsai knew from experience that the housing situation for graduate students living off campus was bleak.
By the middle of May the situation was critical and the rebellion seemed to get closer daily to the capital.
The students made a deal that they would speak to each other only in English.
The government has done a deal with the nurses union in order to avoid strikes in hospitals.
China won't take strong action against Iran's nuclear program because China just made a deal to buy lots of Iranian oil.
The Hershey Corporation, however, already had a deal to provide chocolate for the troops.
Associated: deal (verb) Note: The phrasal verb to deal with means to address an issue or difficulty, as in I've never had this problem before. I don't know how to deal with it. 76,00
perspective[noun] view; opinion; way of thinking
From my perspective as a teacher and parent, I would say that her difficulties in school are due to problems at home.
The government's efforts to reduce unemployment are failing. It needs a new perspective.
Traveling really gives students a better perspective of the world.
Her perspective was that the Korean people believe that the U.S. policy is to have a divided Korea and that the U.S. is the reason the two countries are not united.
Note: In art perspective is the term used for how the artist shows depth. Example: The perspective in this painting is all wrong. It makes him look like he's bigger than the building! 76,00
simply[adverb] completely; just; only
She finds it simply impossible to sit still in class.
There is simply no way to make people believe what they don't want to believe.
Students arriving late had simply failed to read the reminder post card.
As time went on scientists realized that mixing science and religion was simply unnecessary and unproductive.
manage[verb] to succeed in doing something; to be able to do something
I don't know how I always manage to get such a good grade. I never work particularly hard.
I don't think the government will manage to persuade many people to recycle more of their garbage.
He did not manage to develop a particularly good balance in his own life until he was able to stop worrying about what others thought of him.
She should be able to manage to take care of the children on 200.00 per month.
Note: Another very common meaning of manage is associated with business, as in manager / management, etc. 78,30
I gave him clear directions how to do the experiment, but he obviously wasn't listening.
You should follow the directions that the doctor has given you.
She did not follow the directions on the label, despite carefully reading it.
While this was a great idea, the directions were unclear about the requirements and how it would be graded.
Note: When directions is in the plural, it has the meaning of instructions . In the singular it has to do with north, south etc. 78,40
unique[adjective] single, unusual, one of a kind
This is a unique chance to visit South Africa, and at the same time help build a school in the desert.
Google uses a unique computer program to generate its lists of hits within a very short period of time.
A hunt for hazardous asteroids by University of Hawaii astronomers who use a unique search strategy has paid off.
The best way to ensure that your machine has a unique name is to use your University account name for your computer name.
The best feature of your essay is the fact that it was very easy to follow your line of argument.
One feature of the internet that concerns many parents and teachers is that a huge amount of very offensive material is just a click away.
The most important feature of the new design is that it consumes less power.
Tobacco smoke was a feature of life up through the 1970s.
Associated: feature (verb) 81,00
fund[noun] money collected for a particular purpose
The school has set up a fund so that less wealthy students can attend.
The government has cut its fund for research into the causes of cancer.
Visit our Student Support page to see how you can set up a fund to give someone the opportunity to pursue higher education at Michigan Tech.
The partners realized that their small fund was not sufficient to support early stage start-ups in the environment of the early 2000s.
Associated: fund (verb) Note: A refund is money returned to the person who paid it (e.g. because she paid too much or could not be given what she ordered). 81,40
block[verb] to not allow; to stop or prevent
After listening to the students' assurance, the principal decided not to block their plan for a sleepover in the school gym.
The government has decided to block financial aid to the African country until the civil war is over.
The king could delay implementing a new law, but could not block it entirely.
The filter must block out all but about one part in a million of the light that hits it, and must do so all across the spectrum.
Associated: block (noun) Note: Another common meaning of block as a noun is a large piece or collection of , as in a block of wood or .. a block of houses 81,60
tool[noun] something used to do a job
The computer is an excellent tool for language learning.
Force is not always the best tool to get people to change their behaviour, and especially not their way of thinking.
Educational research is a useful tool for both practical and theoretical problem solving.
Military power is not an appropriate tool to transform the Middle East.
Your main task for this lesson is to work together to prepare a presentation on air pollution.
The police chief set up a committee whose task was to investigate the reasons for the shooting of the wrong man.
Without a filter on perceptual input, our brains would have the impossible task of sifting through an overload of information to separate important from unimportant information.
Students receive feedback from the teacher on their performance on the interpretative task before they start on the next one.
category[noun] group of similar items
Run, eat and think are words in the same category, namely: verbs.
Illegal drugs are grouped into one or other category according to how dangerous they are considered.
A link is provided in case the visitor wishes to return to the Search page to review other products in the same category.
He is an American citizen which obviously puts him in a different category from the kinds of individuals that the president has suggested might be suitable.
Associated: categorize (verb) 83,60
With her good grades she is now getting the benefit of all her hard work.
I know the disadvantages of living far from the city and my work, but there is an important benefit: fresh air!
Customers found no benefit in comparison -shopping, since price uniformity was nearly absolute.
Janice Walker wanted to examine further ways to continue this great benefit to the company's staff as well as the company's productivity.
Associated: benefit (verb) 84,00
abstract[adjective] not specific or concrete
Infinity is an abstract idea that many students find difficult to understand.
I find your arguments too abstract. Can you give me some specific examples of what you mean?
Audio software can help students to record their spoken words describing an abstract concept or how to perform a computation.
The book is at its best when it delves energetically into some particular event, and draws out its abstract meaning with reference to the grand themes.
Associated: abstraction (noun) Note: An abstract painting is one without an obvious subject. Another common meaning of abstract (noun) is a short summary of a written article (usually an academic article). 84,20
exist[verb] to be alive, to be in the world
Dinosaurs no longer exist - they have been extinct for millions of years.
If our planet were much farther from, or much closer to, the sun, for example, then life might not exist.
The Birth Control Pill may have modernized society, but it tore apart a nation and created many social problems that did not exist before its invention.
Ventures like Amazon.com will only continue to exist as long as they make money.
Associated: existence (noun) 84,30
detail[noun] a small piece of information
This is an excellent piece of work. You forgot just one detail - your name at the top!
We should agree on our general plan first. We can talk later about the important detail of who will pay.
You are recommended to record every significant detail about each of your customers.
She found that the document had no detail and conflicted with the assessments of military intelligence.
Associated: detailed (adjective) Note: 84,80
accept[verb] to agree (to have)
I don't accept your conclusion. I think you have made a mistake.
Germany had to accept a harsh peace treaty after being defeated in the first world war.
If you accept a housing assignment in the Summer Allocation and subsequently cancel it or fail to move in you are charged an administrative fee.
Assad did not want to accept a cease-fire until Israel evacuated at least those parts of the Golan Heights occupied in the October war.
Associated: acceptance (noun) Antonym: reject Note: Acceptable means ok, permissible . Example: Your behaviour is not acceptable . 85,20
therefore[adverb] so, as a result
You didn't study for the test. Therefore you got a low grade.
She had been smoking since the age of 12. It was no real surprise, therefore, that she developed lung cancer.
The course is aimed to develop appropriate skills and will therefore attempt to identify contexts where a traditional lecture might be required.
The most we can say with confidence, therefore, is that CONTU recommended, and Congress adopted, the policy.
entire[adjective] whole, all
We spent the entire lesson talking about the past continuous tense. It was so boring.
The entire workforce is opposed to the managers' plans to relocate the factory.
The entire collection is complete and available for online access.
Not all members of the Bush Administration have been telling the entire truth about their dealing with Iraq.
There is only one error in your writing. You put: He play tennis instead of He plays tennis.
He found a serious error in the work and did a very careful study to determine the correct results.
We should avoid the error of assuming that we will ever be able to comprehend the causes of his behaviour.
If authors realize there is a significant error in a published paper, they may correct their paper by submitting a short correction notice.
Associated: err (verb) 87,60
enable[verb] to make something or someone able to do something
The information that you receive in today's lesson will enable you to complete your project on nuclear energy.
Mobile phones enable parents to keep in contact with their children when they are out with their friends
Our results did not enable us to determine whether SMR or MOEE had reached minimum values.
We are focused on creating the technology and applications that will enable daily media consumers to become daily media producers.
Associated: Antonym: disable Note: If someone is disabled , it usually means that they have a disability that prevents them from doing everything that a healthy person can do; e.g. work, walk around, etc. 87,60
instruction[noun] advice or teaching how to do something; an order to do something
The school offers basketball instruction in the vacation.
The teacher left an instruction that no homework was to be set in her absence.
How can educators design instruction to maximize the learning of all students?
These tips do not relieve you of the obligation to read and follow the Instruction Booklet which is ONLY available on line this year!
If you want to examine very small objects, you will need a good microscope.
The government plans to examine the research data carefully before making an announcement.
In this class, we will examine the controversy about the risks generated by the war on terror.
We have had no chance to examine changes of this sort systematically, but simply offer them as examples of processes that we expect to be completed.
Associated: examination (noun) 90,90
average[adjective] ordinary, typical
The average student at our school spends about 90 minutes doing homework every evening.
The average German family has 1.8 children.
Each section of the book, is represented by a family, which was chosen as an average family representing that country.
What's the average time needed to finish a course?
Associated: average (noun) 90,90
When I typed in the term 'English as a Second Language' in Google, I got more than 20 million hits. That's a huge figure.
We know it's not 100% correct, but it's the best figure that we can produce at this time.
Fully 10 percent of the U.S. population has some form of learning disability; the true figure may in fact be higher.
Both Initial and Wokingham now dispute the figure for the cost of food and say it is lower.
Note: Another common meaning of the noun figure is shape (person), as in I saw a strange figure standing by the gate. 91,00
property[noun] the things that belong to someone, especially their home
This computer is the property of the school.
Every year in Germany many people lose all their property when their houses burn down in a fire.
Our new system for handling lost property makes it possible for you to report the loss of belongings via Internet, on the telephone or at the counter.
In fact, the price of property is 5000 higher if it lies in a section with the Mississippi river passing.
You may lose your property, you may become quite a poor man but, never fear, for sooner or later you will be ten times richer than you were before.
assume[verb] to believe to be true; to presume or predict
I assume his strange behaviour recently is the result of his parents' divorce.
The boss was right to assume that his workers would return to work once it was clear that they would otherwise lose their jobs.
You should not assume that the test questions this semester will be on the same topics.
However, it would be foolish to assume that our planet has seen the last of this powerful and frightening virus.
Associated: assumption (noun) Note: Another common meaning of assume is to take on, as in I assume responsibility for what happened. 91,80
enhance[verb] to make something better
Learning lots of academic words will enhance your chances of success in school.
Computer scan technology can enhance the diagnosis of many sports injuries.
These projects will enhance student learning through the provision of modern technologies.
The drugs are used to enhance performance artificially to the degree that they give athletes a competitive edge.
This project involves students in the process of learning in an attempt to enhance their skills and their successes across all areas of the course.
The merger of two sellers of that product in the area could not enhance market power significantly.
Associated: enhancement (noun) 92,40
demonstrate[verb] to show
The science teacher planned to demonstrate how water evaporates more quickly in hot temperatures.
Can you please demonstrate how to make a table in Microsoft Word. I've read the instructions but don't understand them.
Candidates must demonstrate a high level of responsibility, the ability to work independently, and a strong commitment to customer service.
We were not able to demonstrate statistically significant differences in performance or quality.
Associated: demonstration (noun) Note: Another common meaning of demonstration is street gathering of people protesting about something, as in There was a large demonstration outside Parliament yesterday. A demonstrator is someone who takes part in a street demonstration. 92,70
promote[verb] to encourage; to raise to a higher position in a job
The school is trying to promote reading by having a small library of books in every classroom.
Advertising often tries to promote the idea that the customer deserves to buy the product because they are worth it!
Could you use informal writing tasks to promote thinking and learning?
In the mid-1930s, when she was back at Vogue as fashion editor, Nast declined to promote her to editor of the magazine, once again because of the morality issue.
Associated: promotion (noun) 93,00
attempt[verb] to try
If you don't make the basketball team this year, you should attempt it again next year when you are in grade 8.
The President accepts full responsibility for the decision to attempt the rescue.
Despite the fact that this was a simple questionnaire, the researchers did not even attempt to translate it for use with less educated deaf people.
The student was hardly active with the experiment and did not attempt to contribute.
Associated: attempt (noun) 93,00
equipment[noun] the things you need (to do a job or play sport, etc.)
Can someone please return this science equipment to the store cupboard?
The police did not have the necessary equipment to cut the man free from the crashed car.
The communication medium is a computer, phone line, and modem; the student must have access to the necessary equipment.
They faced problems for which they did not have the equipment or the training.
Associated: equip (verb) 93,60
You have made no effort to learn, thus you will not be entered for the test.
The government failed to understand why the people were so unhappy with its policies, and thus was voted out at the next election.
Thus, the results obtained are consistent with the popular belief that alcohol intoxication causes males to view women as more attractive.
It is not necessarily subjected to a thorough analysis, thus it will need to be evaluated by the user.
economic[adjective] financial; to do with money
The economic position of the school has improved since the government reduced its tax requirements.
The rising price of oil could result in a global economic disaster.
For most children, two parents are better than one for more than just economic reasons.
The Seminar is an intensive examination of economic policy making in Washington.
Associated: economy (noun); economically (adverb) Note: Economics is the study of finance . The economy is the total financial transactions of a country. 93,90
prevent[verb] to stop from doing or happening
If you want to prevent tooth decay, you need to brush your teeth properly at least twice a day.
It will help to prevent the nuclear powers from developing more advanced and more dangerous weapons.
Even though the South voted solidly against Lincoln, they could not prevent his victory.
China also experienced social upheaval, and was unable to prevent foreign domination of its trade.
Dhawan says that he is confident that the summer rate cuts will prevent the economy from spiraling into a recession.
You must write a minimum of 3 pages for your final report.
Many countries have a minimum wage - this is the smallest amount of money that people may earn for a full-time job.
Students may take a longer time to complete this program, but a minimum of two semesters shall be devoted to full-time work and normally the program must be completed within eight calendar years.
When a satisfactory minimum has been found using limits, the limits should then be removed if possible, in order to perform or re-perform the error.
Associated: minimize (verb) Antonym: maximum Note: Minimize can also be spelled minimise. 94,20
display[noun] a show, demonstration, illustration
There is a display of student work in the corridor outside of the cafeteria.
Many people like to change the display on their computer desktop.
There will be a display of Chinese art, literature, instruments, calligraphy, and fashion from noon to 4 p.m. on Wednesday, February 27.
Based on his research, Healey developed a system that combined the display of multiple values into a single visual element.
Associated: display (verb) 94,20
complex[adjective] difficult, complicated
This is a very complex problem. We need more time to think of a good solution.
This issue is more complex than we expected; we're going to need some outside help.
You either are or are not married; it's not a complex question.
This is especially true in the environmental sciences where many of the systems are dynamic and extremely complex.
Associated: complexity (noun) Antonym: simple Note: Another common meaning of complex as a noun is personality problem, as in She has a complex about people watching her when she eats. 94,60
contribute[verb] to give (for example: money, help or ideas); to play a part in
Could you please contribute to our Christmas collection for flood victims in Bangladesh?
They sit there in every meeting but they never contribute their own ideas.
If you wish to contribute material that is copyrighted by someone besides yourself, then you will need to document that the copyright holder has agreed.
It is during adolescence that clear gender differences arise which might contribute to the varying rates of depression.
Associated: contribution (noun) 94,80
You are certain to fail unless you put in more effort.
The professor was not certain that the work contained the student's own ideas.
Be certain to answer the question in its entirety. Be certain to explain how and why you came to a particular conclusion.
Since the U.S. flu vaccine supply was cut in half early this month, shots are scarce, lines long and some people are certain to miss out.
Associated: certainty (noun); certainly (adverb) Antonym: uncertain Note: Another very common use of certain can be seen in the following examples, where it has the broad meaning of some. Examples: There are certain problems with your writing. Certain people are unhappy with the plans. 95,60
context[noun] the place or situation in which something is found
A good way to guess the meaning of a new word is to examine its context in the sentence.
It is essential to consider her difficulties at school in the context of her chaotic home life.
Ever since 9/11, the word "terrorist" has been thrown around so much that it is being used way too much out of context.
Game reasoning is simply moral reasoning that occurs in the context of competitive sports, and perhaps elsewhere as well.
reflect[verb] to think or consider
You need to reflect a little more on the books that you read. It's not enough to just write what happens.
The government clearly did not reflect carefully enough on the consequences of its new law.
If we reflect just a little more, we will see that random is hardly the right adjective.
As a teacher educator, I believe that new teachers need to reflect on, critically analyze, and evaluate their own teaching.
Associated: reflection (noun) Note: Another common meaning of reflect / reflection is connected with mirrors, glass, etc. Example: I saw my reflection in the shop window as I walked past. 95,70
He's having a lot of problems learning English, especially in grammar and spelling.
Doctors have found a connection between cannabis use and mental illness. This is especially a danger for people who have started taking drugs at an early age.
Students are encouraged to discuss topics early on with the instructor, especially in the case of an independent investigation.
It's not that the mathematics is especially difficult; the problem is comprehending the convoluted English.
Associated: especial (adjective) 95,80
encourage[verb] to move someone to do something by positive talk; support or help
I encourage you to spend part of the summer vacation reading. This is an excellent way to improve your English.
The government wants to encourage young mothers in poor areas to attend parenting classes.
How can the traditional classroom and the technology in it encourage deeper learning?
It is the president who will need to encourage the strategic thinking and action necessary to attract and retain employees of quality.
comment[noun] a short written or spoken statement or opinion
The principal made no comment on the reasons for asking the student to leave the school.
The government minister expressed regret at her thoughtless comment about 'lazy incompetent teachers'.
She listened attentively, but made no comment.
That's probably the most fatuous comment I've read on this website.
Associated: comment (verb) 96,60
establish[verb] to begin or set up
Many large companies are trying to establish operations in China. This is the key market of the future.
The university plans to establish a fund so that poorer students can attend.
The American colonists did not establish a real newspaper of their own for another century.
We wanted to establish a long-term relationship that could grow with our company.
Associated: establishment (noun) 96,90
alternative[noun] other possibility
Sorry, you have no alternative. You must do the work and you must do it by Friday.
For the last 30 years scientists have been searching for a good alternative to gasoline (petrol) as a fuel to run cars.
If breastfeeding is not possible, commercial infant milk formulas are a good alternative.
This section is not an alternative to reading course materials or attending lectures, but rather an opportunity explore topics in greater detail.
Associated: alternative (adjective); alternatively (adverb) 97,00
progress[noun] improvement or development
You have made excellent progress in English this year. You will soon no longer need to take ESL lessons.
Little progress has been made in negotiations to free the Koreans kidnapped in Afghanistan,.
We have not made much progress toward the fulfillment of Xabier's dream of finding a solution to world poverty.
Significant progress has been toward reaching this goal through the broad workforce planning effort as well as specific unit managerial decisions.
Associated: progress (verb) 97,00
refer[verb] to direct (attention) to; to mean
Does this report refer to this year or last year?
To justify their high salary, top managers like to refer to the increased risk that they will lose their jobs.
Refer this page to a friend.
You may need to refer to the terms and scope of the permission (i.e., duration, purpose, etc.).
Associated: reference (noun) 97,20
treatment[noun] way of handing a person, situation or problem (often of illness)
I don't think that the school's treatment of the students caught smoking in the toilets was very fair.
Many people were very unhappy at the police's treatment of the demonstrators.
You are encouraged to commit to the therapy group for a sufficient amount of time before deciding that it is not the right treatment for you.
This is an important finding that has implications for the diagnosis and treatment of children with PTSD.
Associated: treat (verb) 97,60
effort[noun] hard work; attempt
She has not been making much effort in the last few weeks. I think the counselor should talk to her and find out if anything is wrong.
Scientists have so far been unsuccessful in their effort to find a cure for cancer.
I expect each student to put significant effort into every assignment, providing the foundation for rich and engaging classroom discussions.
Surprisingly little effort, however, has been devoted to the scientific study of how to prevent teenage pregnancy.
Copying from the internet has grown on a large scale in recent years.
From the airplane it was possible to see the scale of the destruction caused in the earthquake.
Using this size scale, the table shows how large each planet is and how far it is from the sun.
A large scale map shows a small area with a large amount of detail.
Note: Another common meaning of scale is the key that shows distances on a map , as in The scale on this map is 1:30,000. 98,20
sample[noun] example; a smaller number of a larger collection
The publishing company brought a sample of its books to display to teachers.
You will need to provide a sample of recent writing so that your English level can be assessed.
This page contains a sample outline to be used as a guide for the creation of a strong outline.
Sample problems are under the links in the "Sample Problems" column and the corresponding review material is under the Concepts column.
Associated: sample (verb) Note: If a doctor asks you for a sample she wants you to give blood or urine. 98,60
The volume of business between Europe and Asia has greatly increased in recent years.
It is possible to find the volume of an object by measuring the amount of water that it displaces.
A simple and often effective means to reduce blood pressure is to reduce the volume of body fluid with a diuretic.
What is the exact change in volume of the water when it freezes as ice?
Note: Another common meaning of volume is sound level , as in Can you please turn down the volume of the TV. I'm trying to do my homework. 99,00
among[preposition] in, between
There have been problems in the school among students of different nationalities.
The decision on whether to shut down its nuclear power stations is among the most serious issues facing the government.
The report was designed to measure computer and Internet use among people with disabilities.
Human rights activist John Prendergast, who will present the lecture "Stopping Genocide", is among the notable speakers coming to campus.
Note: This word is sometimes spelled amongst . 99,40
cause[noun] the reason why something happens
The main cause of her poor grades are her frequent absences from school.
It is a well-known fact that smoking is a cause of lung cancer.
Poor diet itself is not a cause of scoliosis, but maintaining a healthy diet can diminish the symptoms of scoliosis.
It should be obvious that the consumption habits of the wealthy countries are the prime cause of environmental problems.
Associated: cause (verb) 100,80
choice[noun] decision, selection
Younger students usually have no choice in what they study.
Should the government invest more in solar energy or nuclear energy? It's a difficult choice.
Their research draws a connection between school choice and segregation, but hasn't yet tackled the "whys."
To use or not use alcohol is a personal choice.
Associated: choose (verb) 101,00
evaluate[verb] to decide on the value, quality or importance of something
Teachers need to regularly evaluate the quality of their student's work.
It is too soon to evaluate the success of the "war on terror".
David Malik maintains that most students are not able to evaluate teaching effectiveness.
These programs must evaluate factors that may be affecting profits.
Associated: evaluation (noun) 101,10
due[preposition] as a result of, because of
She will not be in school tomorrow due to an appointment at the dentist.
Profits have declined due to the massive increase in the cost of oil.
Campus schedules change due to snow.
The dramatic drop in teen smoking is due to the N.C. Health and Wellness tobacco program.
Note: When due is used as a preposition in this way, it must be followed by to. An exact synonym is span class="extraFullWord">owing to .. . Another common meaning of due is the date on something has to be done, as in Don't forget. Your project is due tomorrow. 102,00
effective[adjective] good, working well
A very effective way to check how the use of an English word is to look in Google for pages that contain it.
The government's policy of reducing teenage drinking by raising the price of alcopops has not been very effective.
It offers an effective solution to a problem based on good audience analysis, and fulfills minor as well as all major purposes.
When used correctly and consistently, condoms are an effective means of preventing pregnancy.
Would you help me with my science homework? - OK, but I'd rather go out and play basketball.
Many people would rather drive 500 meters to the shops than walk there.
You'll save yourself a lot of work if you concentrate on creating a healthy lawn, rather than the manicured look.
Rather than worrying about anthrax, this is the time of year to make sure that those at high risk for the flu receive their vaccinations.
Note: Another common meaning of rather is quite, somewhat, as in I think I did rather well in the test. 102,90
original[adjective] the first of its kind
This looks like a copy. Can you please give me the original sheet.
The company's original plan was to close down only one of their factories. Because of continuing bad sales, however, they were forced to close three of them.
The picture on the left is the original picture. That on the right is a copy.
Summarizing or paraphrasing is expressing the original idea or information in your own words.
Associated: originate (verb); original (adjective); originally (adverb); origin (noun) Note: The origin of something is where or how it starts, as in Can anyone tell me the origin of the word spam (email spam)? 102,90
A common teacher request to students who are not listening in class is: Pay attention.
Once the conference is over the government will turn its attention to the problems of urban crime.
If there is a group that we have paid no attention to, it's old women, says Hawkes.
After the attacks of September 11, 2001, Pat Cornell turned her attention to detecting and preventing terrorism.
Associated: attend (verb) 103,20
contain[verb] to have in it; to hold inside
The test will contain all of the topics that we have covered this trimester.
Your password should contain only letters or numbers.
The ethnographic reports were clear and did not contain conflicting information.
The text should contain a concise description of the aims and scope of your thesis.
Associated: content (noun) 103,50
achieve[verb] to gain or get something (often academic success)
If you worked hard you would achieve a better grade.
It is difficult to achieve success in school if you are absent so often.
Girls and boys achieve at similar levels in mathematics through school and at the undergraduate level.
To achieve this goal, planning must apply the best available scientific information and analysis.
Associated: achievement (noun) 105,00
relationship[noun] the way to things are connected
There is a clear relationship between vocabulary and academic success. The more words you know, the better you can read. The better you can read, the more successful you will be in all your subjects.
There is not always a direct relationship between the amount of money one spends on a problem and one's ability to solve it.
There is no relationship between an individual's education and their income.
Wartella speculated that a possible explanation for this lack of strong relationship in the obesity studies may reside in the methodological approach.
Note: Another common use of relationship is when referring to how people get on with each other. Example: She doesn't have a very good relationship with her parents. 105,00
suggest[verb] to say an idea; to recommend
The librarian will be able to suggest some good books for you to read in the summer vacation.
The government can suggest that people eat more healthily but it cannot force them to do so.
If you do not have a particular title in mind, but wish to suggest that the library purchase more material on a specific subject, please enter your name.
I would also suggest that you contact your physician for further information.
Associated: suggestion (noun) 105,90
evidence[noun] proof, signs
There is some evidence that she plagiarized her research essay.
When police investigate a crime, they look for evidence such as fingerprints, specks of blood, etc.
Students must demonstrate evidence of a competent reading knowledge of a language other than modern English.
Top American scientists assigned to the weapons hunt in Iraq found no evidence Saddam Hussein was making chemical weapons.
trade[verb] to exchange products or services
"I'll trade you these 7 Pokemon cards for your 8 Yugioh cards."
Most western countries want to trade with China. It's the largest market in the world and its developing fast.
The American public seems prepared to trade some privacy for security.
When the Powhatans did not want to trade with the settlers, Smith used force to acquire food.
Associated: trade (noun) 106,50
region[noun] part of a place
The school is located in the wooded region to the north west of Frankfurt.
The bottom of the Pacific Ocean is the most remote region on Earth.
Asia is our closest region and essentially I feel that we need more understanding and exchange culturally to make sense of where we all are'.
The cost of transporting diesel fuel to operate machines in the arctic region is very high, typically 2-4 times world market prices.
Associated: regional (adjective) 106,80
purchase[verb] to buy
The school plans to purchase a new computer for each of its teachers.
It is still somewhat of a risk to purchase things on the internet.
The following publications are available for purchase from the Florida Solar Energy Center.
In all such cases, we are happy to refund the purchase price and shipping charges once the prints are returned to us, at your expense, in good condition.
Associated: purchase (noun) Antonym: sell 107,10
legal[adjective] acceptable in law (to do with the law)
The parents took legal advice when the school expelled their daughter for repeated plagiarism.
The government wants to make it legal for the police to keep suspected terrorists in prison for 90 days before bringing them to trial.
Click for information about legal drinking ages in the United States and around the world.
Make sure you use legal resources to download your favorite music and other media!
I avoid the cafeteria at lunchtime. It's too crowded and noisy.
The government should avoid making promises that it cannot keep.
To prevent this from happening, it is very helpful for patients to avoid talking unless absolutely necessary for three days following surgery.
Those who will be attending the event should try to make it to the Speedway early to avoid the rush hour traffic.
Associated: avoidance (noun) 108,60
store[verb] to put something in a place where it can be found and used later
This is the room where we store the science equipment ready for use in the classroom.
Modern computers can store the equivalent of many millions of pages of writing.
You must remember to store all the images and other HTML documents you have created and referenced in your "Public/html" directory.
Before the accident he did not store his guns locked or unloaded; now he does.
Associated: store (noun) 108,90
distance[noun] how far it is from one place to another
The distance from Frankfurt to Oberursel is about 12 kilometers.
When the earth is closest to the sun, the distance between the earth and sun is 147000000k.
The eagle is capable of carrying animals nearly as heavy as itself a great distance.
Over the course of her journey in the program she has come a great distance from her primary focus as an agent for FEMA.
Associated: distant (adjective) 109,20
measure[verb] to find out how much there is of something
It is not always easy to measure student progress.
However, in those studies, he was unable to measure the campaign's effectiveness in reaching the people of Uganda.
Tests are valid when they measure what they claim to measure, and reliable when they measure consistently.
Over the same period research was unable to measure significant effects on achievement from readily available school characteristics.
Associated: measurement (noun) Note: Another important meaning of measure (noun) is action taken to achieve a goal , as in The government needs to think of alternative measures for dealing with the problem. With this meaning the noun is usually found in the plural. 110,40
background[noun] family experiences; circumstances
With her background it is not surprising that she has had problems in her new school.
You need to know a little more about the background before you criticize the government's decision.
Furthermore, as an educational institution, the College cannot ignore the background and perspectives of its students and must attempt to promote teaching practices and a campus atmosphere that benefits and ensures the success of all of its learners.
These questions are meant to help you research the background information you will need to evaluate some of the water quality issues in NYC
Associated: journey (noun) Note: Another common meaning of background is associated with what you can see behind or at the back of something. Example: It is not easy to read webpages with green writing on a purple background. 111,60
explain[verb] to give the reason for something or say how to do something
I like teachers who can explain clearly what we have to do.
The police chief found it difficult to explain why the wrong man had been arrested.
When questioned by the instructor, the student was unable to explain several of the terms and phrases he had used in his writing.
You will need to explain your situation as clearly as possible and provide appropriate supporting documentation.
Associated: explanation (noun) 111,60
similar[adjective] like, almost the same as
The school had similar exam results to last year, with the exception except that mathematics scores were a little higher.
Germany and France have similar problems integrating their Muslim immigrants.
A similar study conducted by Dr. Francisco Moreno at the University of Arizona tested the effects of psilocybin psychotherapy on patients with obsessive disorders.
Corms have shapes similar to bulbs, but do not contain fleshy scales.
The pattern of weight change through pregnancy was similar across the 3 projects.
The study also found that both genders get a similar benefit from the therapy, which reduced mortality risk in women by an estimated 43%.
Associated: similarity (noun); similarly (adverb) Antonym: different 111,80
lecture[noun] a talk on a particular subject; talk criticizing unacceptable behaviour
The teacher gave me a lecture about the need to be in class on time with all my materials.
The lecture is the most common teaching style at university. There is not so much question and answer as in schools.
Kiewra found that students who did not even attend the lecture but reviewed the instructor notes performed better than students who did attend but failed to take notes.
And, further, he didn't appreciate a lecture from one whose own morality has been deficient.
Associated: lecture (verb) 112,20
Global warming is a problem that we will hear more and more about.
The most famous global organization is the United Nations.
Pick a global issue and collect a series of newspaper articles and/or news clips on it during the semester.
Giuliani's leadership during New York City's darkest hours of the September 11th terrorist attacks earned him global praise and admiration.
The topic I liked best in ESL class this year was Cultural Differences.
The French Revolution is the main topic to be covered in History class in grade 8.
The final topic presents the impact of traditional, sometimes outdated, teaching methods and their effect on the participants' learning.
This is a complex topic, unless you already have some knowledge of superconductivity.
advance[verb] to go or move forward; to get better
The German army planned to advance as far as Moscow, but were then stopped by the severe Russian winter.
You will advance more rapidly if you make more effort.
Here you can recommend areas for investment of resources to advance the University in its health sciences, education, research, service and outreach missions.
The goals are to answer some of the most urgent questions to advance significantly our scientific knowledge about Mars.
Associated: advance (noun); advanced (adjective) Antonym: retreat Note: A common use of advance is in the expression in advance which means ahead of time. For example: I booked my plan ticket well in advance. 113,70
affect[verb] to have an influence on
If you fail the last test, this will seriously affect your overall grade for the year.
Even very low temperatures do not affect the strength of this material.
Because of the interactive nature of the classroom, absences will significantly affect your performance in the course.
Color did not affect the perceived sweetness of the drink and did not affect the drink's ability to quench thirst.
Associated: effect (noun) 113,70
decision[noun] intention to do something, choice
The school has made the difficult decision to ban the wearing of religious symbols in the classroom.
Because of massive protest, the government had to go back on its decision to put up the tax on petrol.
This illustrates the variety of rational choices that a criminal would make in the decision to commit a crime.
The recent switch from Webmail to the express mail interface was a poor decision.
Associated: decide (verb) 114,20
She has no particular difficulties with English, but she just seems to be learning very slowly.
The government should pay particular attention to reducing unemployment among young people.
The English writing system itself causes no particular problems to Spanish learners.
There was a particular reason for this: psychologically, it fitted her deeply personal sense of the appropriate relationship between the sexes.
Associated: particularly (adverb) Note: Particularly means especially , as in That test was not particularly difficult. 114,40
prepare[verb] to get something ready (or to get ready for something)
If you have to give a speech you must prepare for it carefully. First write out speech cards, then practise at home with your parents.
Are you really doing everything you can to prepare for tests?
The US Senate voted yesterday to provide 4 billion for antiviral drugs and other measures to prepare for a feared influenza epidemic.
In the excitement of bringing the Internet into our classrooms, we sometimes forget to prepare our learners appropriately.
With winter weather comes the need to prepare your home, automobile and family to deal with the colder temperatures.
Associated: preparation (noun) Note: If you are prepared to do something, this means that you are ready and willing to not it. Example: The doctor was not prepared to give a reason for his decision. 114,60
institution[noun] a large organization; an important system or custom
Harvard is probably the most famous education institution in the USA.
The government is planning to set up an institution to document climate change.
Slavery is not an institution which developed itself.
A recommended visit is to the Spa Town, a famous institution from Roman times as well as from the Turkish era.
Note: Institute is a similar word used for a large organization. 114,80
indicate[verb] to show or convey
You must indicate at the top of the page how many words you wrote.
The unemployment figures indicate that the recent changes in tax have been successful.
These results indicate that substantial numbers of students attending the school are not attaining minimum levels of literacy and mathematical competency.
You need to indicate on your admissions application that you will have 24 credits completed at the time of attendance.
Associated: indication (noun) 114,90
remain[verb] to stay; still exist
Please remain after class. I need to talk to you.
Many questions remain about how humans evolved from apes.
Under the new plan, the garden would remain at its current location on Walnut and Virginia streets and the pumping station would be built on the northeast.
Dogs keep dying: Too many owners remain unaware of toxic dog food.
Associated: remainder (noun) Note: The remains (noun) of something is what is left of it after a long time, as in We walked along the remains of the ancient Roman wall. 115,50
survey[noun] questionnaire; information gained by questioning people or data
A survey of all students in grade 12 shows that more than 70% think they are given too much homework.
Every 10 years the government carries out a official survey of all households in the country. This is called a census.
This survey is being used to gather information about the current level of frustration with computers and the extent to which users feel rage.
A survey of 438 Rhode Island registered voters conducted August 26-30 also finds nearly half feel the state's health care system has gotten worse over the last decade.
Associated: survey (verb) 116,00
conduct[verb] to do or perform; to behave
That is no way to conduct yourself in the library.
Researchers at the university plan to conduct a survey into what makes people over-drink.
The United Nations Commission of Human Rights did not conduct an investigation.
This document explains why it is important to conduct a community assessment during a sustainability project.
Associated: conduct (noun) Note: The noun conduct is most often used as a synonym for behaviour . [As a noun conduct is stressed on the first syllable, as a verb it is stressed on the second.] 116,40
technical[adjective] to do with machines or the way things work
My father has a workshop in the garage so I have a lot of technical knowledge.
Some people say that there should be technical schools for students who are not so interested in writing or learning from books.
Some of the key personal resources that you will draw from include your own academic background, teaching style, life experience, and technical experience.
Recent government IT initiatives focus narrowly on a specific technical problem, like enabling mobile data communication or Web-based transactions.
Associated: technology (noun) 116,80
growth[noun] development, increase
It is very satisfying as a teacher to see the growth in the ability of your students.
A common science experiment for young people is to investigate the growth of plants under different soil, light and water conditions.
Recent years have seen significant growth in scholarship on the history of telecommunications and related technologies.
This forecast showed much less growth than expected by the district's officials and residents.
Associated: grow (verb) 117,40
case[conjuntion] .. for the event that, because maybe .. will
I always take my dictionary to class in case I have to look up a word.
The weather forecast warned people to stay at home in case the storm got even worse.
In case of an emergency, leave your classroom as quickly as possible and follow the Exit signs to the nearest exit.
A back-up plan is recommended in case the system fails to operate as expected.
Note: With this meaning case must be preceded by in (in case) . The noun case has several meanings. (Use your dictionary to look them up!) 118,00
assist[verb] to help
If you can't do your homework, you should ask your parents to assist you.
The government has set up a programme to assist refugees on entry to the country.
The data center will assist researchers through the application of mathematics and computer science to biological problems.
If you cannot obtain such a statement, you must verify that you have contacted your employer and that the employer was unable to assist you with the refund.
Associated: assistance (noun) 118,20
occur[verb] to happen; take place
How did the accident occur? - It happened because one of the cars was travelling too fast and couldn't stop in time at the traffic lights.
His examination failure did not occur through lack of effort or ability but because of serious illness in the weeks before.
In many cases, simply stating to the student that the behavior is unacceptable and must not occur again is sufficient.
An error will occur if this software is not installed on the user's machine.
Associated: occurrence (noun) 118,50
represent[verb] to be; to show or indicate
These tests represent your last chance to demonstrate what you have learned in the course.
It is not easy to represent an abstract idea in picture form so that ESL students can understand it.
Social network analysts use two kinds of tools from mathematics to represent information about patterns of ties among social actors.
In decimal notation we represent a negative number by writing a minus in front of a positive number.
Associated: representation (noun); representative(adjective) Note: A representative (noun, often shortened to rep) is a person who works for a company. Example; A rep came to my house yesterday and tried to sell me a vacuum cleaner. 118,80
reduce[verb] to make smaller or shorter
If you want to do well in tests then you will need to reduce the amount of time watching TV and spend more time studying.
The government is planning a TV campaign in an attempt to reduce teenage pregnancy,
Several campus departments have been working to reduce the number of false alarms that result from controllable and mechanical factors.
Simply supplying more protein with alfalfa in the ration will reduce the need for purchased soybean meal and result in lower ration P.
The new procedure should help to reduce the number of problems resulting from adjustment to semester length.
Russia was unable to reduce its budget deficit, which stayed around 5% of GDP.
You have to measure the amount of salt in the water.
The government has given 10 million to fight AidS in Africa, but some people believe that this amount is not sufficient.
Little association is found between the amount of homework young students complete and achievement.
Participants donate a small amount of blood or saliva, which will be used as a comparison to blood from children with genetic diseases.
Associated: amount (verb) 123,00
exchange[verb] to give or change one thing and get a different thing
Please exchange your books and check each other's writing.
The government is thinking of passing a law that will require all house owners to exchange their oil heating system for one that runs on gas.
Students post messages and exchange ideas through the bulletin board.
If you discover that you have the wrong textbook, you must contact the source from which you purchased the book and make arrangements to exchange the book.
Associated: exchange (noun) 123,30
goal[noun] aim or intention
My goal this term is to improve my mathematics and science grades.
The government has set itself the goal of reducing teenage pregnancy by 20% in the next 10 years.
A primary goal of teaching is conveying fundamental knowledge of the subject matter while inculcating curiosity, generating interest, and developing independence.
It was not the goal of this book to discuss whether America can win the war, or whether it must lose it.
Note: Another common meaning of goal , of course, is what you score in football, as in I scored 3 goals in yesterday's game. 123,40
format[noun] appearance, layout, way of presenting
My science teacher returned my homework and told me to do it again. She said I had to use the standard format for lab reports.
Most educational institutions have a required format for citations and references.
The date of birth that you entered does not match our records, or was entered in the wrong format.
I prefer to believe that the quality of my thinking has not diminished; I simply have chosen a different format to express my ideas.
Associated: format (verb) 125,40
method[noun] a way of doing something
I have a good method of getting my class to be quiet. I tell them a joke.
There is more than one successful method to teach and learn a foreign language.
It is not the only method of teaching we use at the university; instead we calibrate our teaching techniques to fit our abilities.
Probably every introductory science text in the world includes a first chapter section on the scientific method.
maintain[verb] to claim or state
John continue to maintain that he gave me his homework, but I'm certain he didn't.
The government politicians maintain that the proposed tax changes will lift thousands of people out of poverty.
A verbal contract is impossible to prove, and the organization will always maintain that it was a misunderstanding.
Therefore he was unable to maintain that he was breaking new methodological ground.
Note: Another common meaning of maintain (noun: maintenance) is to keep in a good working condition , as in Some cars are more expensive to maintain than others. 126,00
ability[noun] ableness to do something; a skill for doing something well
She has a lot of ability in tennis; in fact she's the best player in her grade!
I'm sorry but the school has no ability to educate children with severe learning problems.
This finding may explain why increasing numbers of people in the United States lack the natural ability to regulate food intake and body weight.
Strong families possess the ability to manage both daily stressors and difficult life crises creatively and effectively.
Associated: to be able to (verb); able (adjective) Antonym: inability Note: A disability is (permanent) physical inability. People who cannot see have a disability. A near synonym of ability is capability . 126,20
obtain[verb] to get
You can obtain all the things you need for class at the school's bookstore.
Research has demonstrated that good-looking people are more likely to obtain a job than less good-looking people with the same qualifications.
The assignments and quizzes form an integral part of the course grade and you may not obtain a good grade if you ignore them.
If the funding is from personal or family funds, you will need to obtain a current bank statement showing that you have enough funds to cover expenses.
physical[adjective] of the body
Not all ESL students know that the subject PE means physical exercise.
Many soldiers come home from war with no physical problems, but often they have psychological problems that never really disappear.
Men and women of all ages benefit from a moderate amount of daily physical activity (for example: 30 minutes of brisk walking or 15 minutes of jogging).
If there is any question whether the individual might have a physical problem, the mental health professional should recommend a complete examination.
The students worked together to produce a poster about the dangers of nuclear power.
The government's plan to kill all infected cows in the region is sure to produce an angry response from the farmers.
The easiest way to produce documents in .pdf is by using the Adobe Acrobat software.
Many spiders can produce seven different kinds of silk.
Associated: product (noun) 130,50
common[adjective] often seen or happening
Volkswagen is a very common car in Germany.
Graffiti is common on the buildings in big German cities.
In fact, most of the errors discussed on this site are common in the writing of privileged middle-class Americans.
Plants that possess certain traits or characteristics not common to the entire species are referred to as biotypes.
Associated: commonly (adverb); commonality (adverb) Antonym: uncommon Note: Another meaning of common is shared, as in We soon found that we have common interests. or We soon found that we have a lot in common. 131,60
response[noun] answer or reply; reaction
Your response was unclear. Could you please repeat it.
The government's response to the demonstrations was to promise a public inquiry into the reasons for going to war.
NOAA is supporting the Coast Guard in the response to an oil spill in the Calcasieu Ship Channel.
People with another genetic variant, glycine (Gly-389), had no response to the drug compared to the placebo.
Associated: respond (verb) 132,00
explore[verb] to look into a place or thing (in order to learn more about it)
Cats and young children are similar: they both like to explore new places.
The USA is designing a spaceship that will land on Mars and explore its polar regions.
Students will develop a critical basis for the evaluation of their use and explore the possibilities of digital tools and processes.
Our preliminary surveys did not differentiate between different types of questions, so we were unable to explore this issue.
Associated: exploration (noun); explorer (noun) 132,30
rate[noun] quantity; proportion; speed
The dropout rate for high schoolers rose to 3.8 percent during the last decade.
Your target heart rate is a useful way of pacing yourself during exercise.
This is slightly down from the 19 percent failure rate last year but still significantly above the failure rate in other freshmen subjects.
Education has reduced the rate at which the disease has spread throughout the population.
Note: Another common meaning of rate (verb) is to judge, give an opinion about .., as in How did you rate the science lesson we had yesterday? 132,40
notice[verb] to see or realize
The teacher did not notice that one of the students had been crying for most of the lesson.
The government surely cannot fail to notice that its attempts to reduce teenage pregnancy are not working.
If you look at the course policies you will notice an item that accounts for 4% of your grade.
He did not notice the problem until too late.
Associated: notice (noun) Note: A notice is a piece of paper put up somewhere with information for people to read, as in Did you see the notice outside the library saying that all their computers are down?. 132,90
Do you think the government's decision to raise taxes will have an impact on the unemployment figures?
The teacher's threat to give the student a detention had an immediate impact on his behaviour.
No consensus exists as to the impact of the Hyde Amendment on the number of abortions or births.
My guess is that it had no impact on prices except, possibly, the very first time, and that this impact would probably have been very minor.
Associated: impact (verb) 133,40
grant[noun] a sum of money given to a person or organization
A rich parent has made a large grant so that the school can buy new computers.
The government reduced its grant to the Arts Council after it was found that much of the money had been wasted.
If you come from an EU country and follow a study programme in the Netherlands, you may be eligible for a grant for these tuition fees.
The VFWF reserves the right to seek additional funds if the amount of the grant is insufficient to fully meet the needs.
Associated: grant (verb) Note: To grant is to give, as in The fairy granted him 3 wishes. 133,60
Well done. This writing is of an excellent standard.
The patient was not at all happy with the standard of treatment she received while in hospital.
All new computer purchases by the University, and its various Auxiliaries, shall meet a minimum standard for both hardware and operating system.
Among the issues that may be examined include whether personal trainers should be held to a higher standard than other exercise professionals.
necessary[adjective] needed; very important
It's not necessary to do all the questions on the sheet.
If you want to learn a language, it is helpful, but not necessary, to have a native-speaking teacher.
The Court did not find it necessary to hear the testimony of the two forensic experts and did not consider the possibility of ordering a further investigation.
Being at least 18 years old is a necessary condition for being registered to vote.
To learn a new word, it often helps to make an image of it in your mind.
The terrorist plane crashing into the New York tower is an image that most people will never forget.
Keep in mind that Dreamweaver is not an picture editor. If you need to make major changes in the size or other attributes of an image, use Photoshop or other graphics program.
One danger of any powerful image is that, at the height of its power, people confuse the image and the thing that is being compared to it.
various[adjective] several, of different kinds
There are various ways that you can improve your English. Probably the best is to do plenty of reading.
This report contains various problems, the most important of which is that it is not up to date.
The book provides good documentation of the various difficulties that confronted West Africans in Britain during the colonial period.
You will understand the interactions and contributions of the various people and cultures that have lived in or migrated to the area that is now Oregon.
Associated: variety (noun) 147,30
join[verb] to become a member (of an organization; to get together with others
If you want to join the chess club, please sign your name on the list below.
Everyone should join together to protect the environment.
World War II was a turning point because, for the first time, women were allowed to join the military.
We have found that students are more likely to complete a community health project if they join a team.
Note: A joint is part of the body where two bones meet (e.g. elbow) A junction is where two or more roads meet. 148,50
appear[verb] to come, be seen
The President will appear on TV this evening to talk about the riots in the capital city.
Venus will next appear in the night sky in August 2007.
Study suggests macroscopic bilaterian animals did not appear until 555 million years ago.
A new class of antibiotic drugs is not expected to appear in the immediate future.
Associated: appearance (noun) Antonym: disappear, vanish Note: Another common meaning of appear is to seem, as in It appears that he has been lying. or It doesn't appear that he's coming. (Someone's appearance is the way they look.) 148,50
function[noun] job or role
The function of the arteries is to transport oxygen around the body.
The main function of the committee is to recommend a plan for future development.
Court asserted that education was perhaps the most significant function of state and local governments.
A primary function of the system is to facilitate the sharing of information with others.
Associated: function (verb) 148,60
structure[noun] the way something is made or organized
The structure of your writing is not at all clear to me.
The human ear has a very complex structure.
This research study will focus on the current practice of web writers and the structure of the web pages they create.
The loose and often unclear structure of the organizational responsibilities enabled energetic managers to network.
Please release that spider from the box. It will die if you keep it in there.
The government has no plans to release the information that led to its decision to make war on Iraq.
The service will send the letter of recommendation directly to the institution, but we cannot release it to the student without the letter writer's permission.
The aquarium owner decided sometime in the spring of 1992 to release the animal before any further damage or an accident with the other dolphins could occur.
The companies did not release the preliminary results of the trial until almost two years after the trial was finished.
They may have been unwilling to release information to an unknown group with unknown intentions.
Associated: release (noun) 153,90
committee[noun] a group of people meeting to discuss an issue
The school established a committee to discuss the introduction of a bilingual programme.
The government set up a committee to investigate the reasons for the riots.
He reported that the presidential search committee has been formed and thanked some groups for forwarding diverse nominees.
The current timing left the committee with only one working week to review the applications.
period[noun] a length of time (e.g. a lesson)
Please don't forget that you have a vocabulary test next period.
The time when Hitler was leader of Germany is possibly the most terrible period in all of history.
Nevertheless, even within the period 1550-1850 there was a great deal of temperature variation both in time and space.
Adolescents go through a difficult period of separating from their parents and becoming subject to increasing scrutiny from their peers.
risk[verb] to act in a way that might lead to danger or failure
If you do not start working harder you risk failing the exams.
Many athletes who take performance drugs risk serious, long-term damage to their health.
The treatment must not risk damage to any personal or public property.
They would not fill their barrels when the captain told them, but instead, ran the risk that there would be water ahead.
Associated: risk (noun); risky (adjective) 155,10
identify[verb] to know or say who or what something is
I can't identify this beetle; I'll have to ask the science teacher what it is.
The police are trying to identify the men seen on camera breaking the bus shelter.
Should the counselor attempt to identify him and inform him that there is a risk to his future children?
The student could not identify the basic factors in a solution to the problem.
Associated: identification (noun) 155,70
account[noun] a written or spoken report of a happening
Can you please give me an account of what happened while I was out of the classroom?
Different newspapers will often have a different account of the same event - especially newspapers from different parts of the world.
Chapter 6 gives a sketchy and rather incomplete account of molecular genetics.
This book provides the definitive account of the origins of coffee drinking.
Note: Another common meaning of account is in connection with money and business , as in I have an account with the Deutsche Bank. The preposition on account of means because of , as in She was late tto school on account of the heavy traffic. 157,00
while[conjuntion] .. used to contrast to people or things; although
Hannah always tries her best, while her brother never makes any effort.
While the company made a small profit, the management were hoping it would be greater.
Msall said that while the situation has improved, the numbers haven't been changing fast enough.
One group consistently chose cooperation while the other group chose competition.
Note: An alternative spelling for this meaning of while is whilst. The most common meaning of while is during the time that, as in I did my homework while my father cooked dinner. 158,00
cover[verb] to do; to complete
In history class this year, we will cover the French and Russian revolutions.
The meeting ended very late but the administration still did not have time to cover all the issues it wanted to.
The unit did not cover nuclear weapons in as much detail as some of my students would have liked.
Biology courses will cover all major human or animal body systems.
Associated: coverage (noun) 158,40
She has no means of studying in peace at home. Her domestic life is too chaotic.
The company is investigating means of increasing its business in Asia and Africa.
Online students need a means of realistically assessing their readiness for the demands of taking a course in the online environment.
At this stage of our research we were unable to find a means for accessing the actual decisions made in these cases.
credit[noun] .. gained on completing a course of study; praise
You will gain no credit for work that has simply been copied from the internet.
It is to the government's credit that they refused to participate in the invasion of Iraq.
Students with Advanced Placement scores of 4 or 5 in English Language receive a credit toward graduation but not toward the English major.
As a simple soldier he gained much credit by conducting a retreat after all the superior officers had been killed or wounded.
Associated: credit (verb) Note: Another common meaning of credit is money loaned (by a bank) , as in We are buying our house on credit. 159,20
range[noun] extent, distance between two points
Most of the test scores were in the range from 70-80%.
The government survey produced a wide range of responses.
Students successfully completing a family history major should demonstrate a significant range of skills and abilities in research and critical thinking.
A color model is an orderly system for creating a whole range of colors from a small set of primary colors.
issue[noun] a matter or problem
Before making our decision we need to consider the issue of financial support.
The most important issue facing the government is unemployment.
C. S. Lewis tackled this issue head-on and offered some good advice that informs how we select our projects.
The issue of global warming is one of the more contentious issues in science.
Note: Another common meaning of issue is a particular edition of a newspaper or magazine, as in Have you seen last week's issue of Time? 164,00
enter[verb] to go in or put in
When you enter the school, turn right and walk along the corridor. You will find the library on the left-hand side.
You will need to enter the data in the same order for every questionnaire.
Just follow the on-screen instructions as you enter the discussion forum from within a course.
You must enter the US using the visa document issued by the institution you will be attending.
The population of the world is will continue to increase. It is expected that there will be 7 billion people on earth in the year 2010.
Tight budgets made it impossible to increase our faculty to keep pace with our student growth.
The number of extremely warm nights and the length of heat waves will increase significantly over nearly all land areas across the globe.
Bernstein argues that progressive reforms not only failed to increase the power of the people but were conservative and not innovative.
Associated: increase (noun) Antonym: decrease Note: In the noun increase the first syllable is stressed. In the verb increase the second syllable is stressed. The same applies to decrease. 200,10
major[adjective] important, large
Unemployment is a major problem in many European countries.
A major factor in his success was his willingness to work very hard.
Poverty has been a major problem in the United States for many years.
Russian is one of the major world languages and is spoken by over 250 million people.
Associated: Antonym: minor Note: A major (noun) is a student's first and most important subject at college. 201,00
previous[adjective] the one before
The new government has promised not to repeat the mistakes of the previous one.
In our previous class on binary counting, we found a way to represent numbers using just two digits, 0 and 1.
Yoo Jong-pil, spokesman of the DP, claimed Roh wanted to further distinguish himself from the previous government and humiliate the DP.
Ask the candidate to discuss what they believe to have been their most significant challenges and accomplishments in their current job or a previous job.
Associated: previously (adjective) Antonym: next 204,00
society[noun] a group of people; the entire group of people living in a country
The United States has a very cosmopolitan society. People have come from all countries in the world to live there.
Many people think that terrorism is the greatest problem affecting society today.
While addiction and drugs are serious problems in society that require a humane approach, there is no room for nonsense if we want to achieve success.
Whig-Clio is the oldest political, literary, and debating society in the United States.
The older population of the U.S. and the world is growing rapidly, and these large numbers will represent a major challenge for society in general.
Science and technology are driving explosive growth in the production of new knowledge, often with the power to induce profound changes in society.
Associated: social (adjective) 204,00
submit[verb] to give; to send
If you plan for your child to attend the school, you must submit an online request.
Every employee must submit an annual tax declaration to his or her local tax office.
You can submit your work at any time prior to the due date.
He failed to submit proof that he had completed an approved substance- abuse program as required.
Associated: submission (noun) 206,10
individual[noun] one person
Every individual in this class has made excellent progress and passed the final exam.
No individual can have much effect on the environment, but people working together can make a big difference.
There will be no verbal or written personal attacks on any individual or group of individuals based on age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap.
While the individual is not responsible for developing the disease, he or she is responsible for not passing it on.
Associated: individually (adverb) 208,00
location[noun] place, where something or someone is
The school is in a very good location to the north of Frankfurt and on the edge of the beautiful Taunus forest.
Despite looking for Osama Bin Laden for many years, the USA still do not know his exact location.
An important clue to understanding volcanoes is knowing the location of the volcanic bands.
The Regional Oral History Office has moved to a temporary location.
Associated: locate (verb) 210,00
associate[verb] to link to; to make a connection to
Many economists associate the rise in prices with the government's decision to tax imports.
Even today some Russian people refuse to associate Stalin with the terrible crimes that were committed when he was Russian leader.
Many people do not associate a top engineering education with a liberal arts setting.
It is often necessary to associate a complex set of "metadata" with each data point in order to make that datum useful.
Associated: association (noun); associate(noun) Note: An associate is someone you know (especially at work). 210,90
member[noun] a person who is part of a team or other organization
If you are a member of the school orchestra should have lunch early and come to the practice at 12.30.
The police have arrested a man who they say is a member of a terrorist organization.
Do I have to be a member of the Society to submit a paper?
Nazi paramilitary organization was compulsory, although he was never a member of the Nazi party and his family opposed Hitler's regime.
master[verb] to (gain) control
She is yet to master basic verb grammar. She often says He do .. instead of He does ...
It takes a lot of training to master the skills in professions such as car mechanics or cooking,
Teacher trainees will need to master problem-solving strategies that offer clear practical solutions to issues that affect those in poverty.
It was a ridiculous fear, but she was unable to master it.
Associated: mastery (noun) 214,20
event[noun] a happening
The death of Princess Diana was an event that shocked the whole world.
I believe that the most important event in my generation is the war in Iraq.
It was an event that had such a deep effect on me that it helped me decide to move back to Prague.
The goal of this unit is to teach students how a seemingly unimportant event can have a significant effect on their lives.
approach[verb] to near; to get closer
When you approach the city, you will notice the many disused factories.
As we approach the end of the school year, it's time you started to work a little harder!
Be sure to ask if this is a good time to approach the professor for your specific need.
Despite his success, Salieri's musical talent did not approach that of Mozart.
Associated: approach (noun) Note: A common meaning of the noun approach is a way of looking at or doing something, as in I don't like his approach to teaching. 216,00
select[verb] to choose
Which activity are you going to select next time? - I think I'll try chess.
When attempting to select a food service for an on-campus event, please be sure to ask the following questions.
There are six categories to select from, each containing five answers in ascending order of difficulty.
Students choosing this option must select a faculty adviser from the departmental faculty who will supervise the student's program.
The board was unable to select a candidate in the first round because of disagreement over candidates' performance.
Associated: selection (noun) 219,90
Can you please give me the final version of your writing? This looks like your first draft before you corrected the spelling and grammar.
The police chief gave a very different version of the incident than the TV reporter the previous day.
The current version of our anatomy information system has evolved from several previous systems.
Now retired and free to speak out about the scandal, Karpinski is devoting herself to publicizing her version of event.
career[noun] a long-term job
Teaching is the career of the people who work at FIS.
A career in science or engineering usually pays more than one in manufacturing.
Our primary mission is to help you identify, plan for, and achieve your career goals.
Preparing yourself for a career in oceanography is probably one of the most interesting and rewarding (yet difficult) paths to travel.
point[noun] purpose; reason; value
There is no point in turning on the computer. The monitor isn't working.
Many people do not see the point of trying to save money when interest rates are so low.
There is really no point in arguing which approach is better.
So, what's the point of all this hindsight and what do we stand to gain from it?
Note: Another meaning of point as a noun is score or mark , as in: This question is worth 4 points . A common meaning of point as a verb is to show with the finger, as in Can you point to the animal in this picture? 224,00
administration[noun] the people responsible for running an organization such as the government or a school
The administration is planning to extend the school day until 4pm.
Not all the decisions of the administration have been welcomed by the workers.
Such web content does not necessarily reflect the opinions of the University administration.
The Bush administration has failed to address the matter urgently, spending only 1.3 billion per year.
Associated: administer (verb); administrator (noun) 228,00
This section of the book has exercises that I expect you to do as homework every day.
The government has removed a section of the report which they said was no longer up-to-date.
In this section, we first take a closer look at the energy band diagrams of common semiconductors.
This section of the GED web site provides several example questions from each part of the GED Tests.
develop[verb] to grow or improve
If you learn 6 or 7 words a day, your vocabulary will develop very quickly.
Most car companies are putting money into research into alternative forms of fuel. It will take a number of years, however, before anyone can develop a car that runs on water.
Why have these countries failed to develop despite receiving billions of dollars in assistance?
The best assurance that Iran will not develop nuclear weapons is to allow it to have a full civilian nuclear program under IAEA supervision.
Associated: development (noun) 238,80
I think your schedule is wrong. You should be in science class now, not ESL
The government has announced its schedule for the introduction of the new tax system over the next 5 years.
Check the schedule below for specific dates and starting times.
She discussed the schedule for implementing the system through April 2003 and outlined several potential advantages of the system.
Note: Some people (particularly Britons) pronounce schedule as shhedule; others (Americans) as skedule. 240,00
receive[verb] to get
Did everyone receive their report card.
If you order a book from Amazon, you usually receive it within a few days.
You will receive an email from the Financial Aid office when your financial aid eligibility has been determined.
The U.S. government likely approached China on this matter prior to the announcement of sanctions, but did not receive a satisfactory response.
Associated: receipt (noun) Antonym: give, get 243,00
design[noun] planning (drawing)
Students have been invited to comment on the design of the school's new sports facility.
For some people the design of a car is more important than its price or performance.
Poor web page design occurs when a writer does not follow accepted standards.
After the war, Turing joined the National Physical Laboratory to work on the design of a computer.
Associated: design (verb) 244,00
focus[verb] to direct attention (on an issue)
The next project that we need to focus on is the school extension.
We need to focus on the important issues.
Students are encouraged to focus not only on the skills and knowledge related to the high stakes tests but also the skills and knowledge to perform more authentic tasks.
During this period she developed her ideas on art, her main one being that the best art did not focus on reality but evoked the state of the soul.
Associated: focus (noun) Note: Another common meaning of focus is to make sharp, as in This picture is very unclear. Are you sure you know how to focus your camera? 245,40
main[adjective] most important
You have many small errors in your writing, but your main problem is that you have not organized your thoughts clearly enough.
The main advantage of living in the city is that you are close to good shopping and entertainment. Of course, city life has many disadvantages too.
The main objective of the proposed research is to investigate the influence of West African languages.
The main consequence of these wars is the social unrest, and the increasing economic and social divergence between the groups of the community.
Associated: mainly (adverb) 246,00
To a certain degree I think you are right, but not 100%.
To what degree do you believe that the government has made the right decision?
Most of Africa suffers to some degree from similar issues: weak institutions, stagnant economies, ethnic conflict, etc.
The hypothesis put forward in this paper depends in no degree upon the completeness of our knowledge of the former condition of the organic world.
Note: Another common meaning of degree is an educational award, as in I am studying for a degree in linguistics. 250,00
experience[noun] knowledge and skills gained over a long period of time
I think the new teacher will do very well. She has a lot of experience with students whose first language is not English.
A typical problem is that many companies will only employ workers with experience, but how do young people gain that experience if they are not given a job. This is called a "vicious circle".
Many undergraduates have little experience in organizing tasks and making good use of time.
Mr. Elliott was at fault for delegating that function to a person who lacked the experience to perform the job properly.
Associated: experience (verb) 252,00
create[verb] to make; to use your imagination to make something new
Many scientists are working hard to create a robot that can understand spoken language and do jobs around the house.
We must face the reality that we will have to create systems out of components that are far less than perfect.
The developing world does not create many industrial wastes; thus it has had little opportunity to develop proper disposal techniques.
Most recently, he has focused on discarded metal objects, hundreds or even thousands of which are joined together to create remarkable works of art.
The school sports field is not a public facility. Only students, parents or teachers are allowed to use it.
The government has so far refused to make public its plans for the continued presence of its soldiers in Iraq.
News digest covers critical public health issues from around the world.
How do I find out whether the book is in the public domain?
Associated: Antonym: private Note: The public are the people of a country, as in It's time the public were told about the proposed tax increases. 309,00
order[noun] sequence, place
You have not got these words in the right order. In German the main verb must be the second element in the sentence.
The company has done things in the wrong order. It should not have built the next factory before employing people to work in it, not after.
Arrange the terms in the correct order from simplest to most complex.
The 1970 draft lottery, intended to pick birthdays in random order, didn't do a very good job of randomization.
Associated: order (verb) Note: Another common meaning of order (noun and verb) is command , as in The teacher gave the order to leave the room. A further common use is in the expression in order to as in I went to the library in order to use one of the computers. 312,00
control[verb] to have and exercise power over something or someone
The new teacher found it difficult to control the class.
Terrorists control large areas of the country outside of the main towns.
You can't always control what happens to you, but you can always control how you react to what happens to you.
While most adults with phobias know that these fears are extreme and irrational, they are unable to control them.
Associated: control (noun) 312,00
present[verb] to give or show; to make a presentation
Remember that you will present your ecology poster to the rest of the class in tomorrow's lesson.
The government plans to present its report on adult education before the beginning of the summer vacation.
If you fail to present proper identification you will be billed 5.00 per test.
Your work will be penalized if you do not present it by the assigned deadline.
Associated: presentation (noun); presenter (noun) Note: Two more common meanings of present : 1. present (adjective) = here (opposite of absent), and 2. present (noun) = gift. 336,00
policy[noun] formal rules
The school has a policy of expelling any student who brings drugs into the building.
Not everyone agrees with the government's policy of putting illegal immigrants into prison.
I have read the terms of the University's Internet Access Policy and agree to abide by them.
He alleged that the state had adopted the policy of attacking the entire independent media rather than targeting individual journalists as in the past.
current[adjective] happening now
The current prediction is that there will be no more oil by the end of the century.
The director has called a meeting to discuss current problems in the computer labs.
Parental assistance should be just sufficient to get the learner past his current difficulties.
The aim of the course is to have students discuss current events in Germany.
Associated: currently (adverb) 340,50
service[noun] work done for others; help
The school offers a free translation service to help families new to the school and to the country.
The train service in Germany is much better than that in England.
In recognition of your continuous satisfactory service to the university, you will receive an award at five-year intervals.
Professor Cowen has a particular interest in professional service firms and has conducted much of her research in the investment banking industry.
apply[verb] to be relevant (to)
The advice does not apply to adults, only to children.
The new rules will apply to anyone who has come to Germany in the last 10 years.
The decision does not usually apply to aliens who are under mandatory detention.
They argued that the law did not apply to Cheney's task force, since all of its members were government officials, not outsiders.
Associated: application (noun) Note: Another common meaning of apply is to make a formal request for something ( especially jobs or college admission ), as in I have applied to study physics at Harvard. 354,00
review[verb] to check over (and make changes)
Be sure to review your writing before you give it to me.
The government promised to review its policy on drug criminality.
If this request is approved by the IRB, the researcher and his or her clinic staff would be permitted to review the medical records.
It is important to review language that reinforces the dominant culture's attitude to disability.
Associated: review (noun) Note: Another common meaning of review (noun / verb) is written or spoken opinion about a book, film, etc., as in Did you read the review of Madonna's new CD? I thought it was rather harsh. 360,00
description[noun] an account of what something is like or looks like
Thanks to the accurate description of the witnesses, the police were able to identify the bank robbers.
You will see the description of the problem on the left and the solution on the right.
Newton's Laws provide a good description of the flight of a baseball.
The lesson plans contained an incomplete description of learners, their background and prior knowledge.
Associated: describe (verb) 364,00
own[verb] to have or possess
The school does not own the sports hall. It belongs to the local council, which charges the school to use it.
Many more people own a house in England than in Germany.
If you do not own a computer you should not enroll in the program.
I believe police agencies have no right to determine who can or cannot own guns.
Associated: owner (noun) 390,00
Most beginning ESL students need a lot of support from their teachers and parents before they can start to work more independently.
The government needs to offer more financial support to young married couples who want to buy a house.
As one of its many uses to support learning, the Internet is increasingly being used as a forum for students to give feedback to each other.
A layer of this cement three tenthousandths of an inch thick over one square inch will support a weight of 7000 pounds.
Associated: support (verb); supportive (adjective) 398,00
address[verb] to give attention to (an issue)
The school needs to address the serious problem of bullying among grade 7 students.
Some people are unwilling to address the issue of global warming. They claim it is not happening.
We need to address the issue of absenteeism and lower productivity among working parents who worry that their kids are not safe.
Although the amendment claimed to reduce opportunities for voter fraud, it did not address the more common problems of fraudulent voter registration.
Note: Another common meaning of address is, of course, house number, street, etc. , as in My address 402,00
course[noun] a subject or period of study
This year you cannot choose which science course to do, but when you are in grade 9 you can select chemistry, physics or biology.
The government has introduced a compulsory language course for immigrants who cannot speak English.
If you fail the midterm exam and the first homework then you fail the course.
After an initial period of introduction and practice, the German course begins with Chapter 1 in the text Deutsch: Na klar!
found[verb] to begin (often an organization)
Frankfurt International School has decided to found a student-teacher group to help with the education of students in the Kalahari.
The government intends to found a new organization to help young people find suitable jobs.
The single, vital, principle on which the true republic must found itself, he insists, is the principle of good-will.
Wilhelm Wundt began writing on psychology and psychophysics as early as 1858, even though he did not found his laboratory until 1879.
Associated: foundation (noun) Note: To found is a regular verb. Past tense: founded. 411,00
community[noun] a group of people
Frankfurt International School has invited the local community to its Open Day.
The internet has made it possible for a community of people with similar interests to get together online, even if they don't live close to each other.
Unidata is a diverse community of education and research institutions vested in the common goal of sharing data, tools to access the data, and software to use and visualize the data.
The situation is such that not only is the Muslim community conflicted with the outside pressures to conform, but it is conflicted within itself.
Associated: communal (adjective) 424,00
include[verb] to put in; to have in
You have forgotten to include an introductory paragraph. Please do so.
All new cars have airbags and many include navigation systems too.
An assessment report must include a summary of procedures and instruments.
The global trade agreements have failed to include meaningful, enforceable labour or environmental standards.